Undergraduate Course: Physics 2B (PHYS08023)
Course Outline
School  School of Physics and Astronomy 
College  College of Science and Engineering 
Course type  Standard 
Availability  Available to all students 
Credit level (Normal year taken)  SCQF Level 8 (Year 2 Undergraduate) 
Credits  20 
Home subject area  Undergraduate (School of Physics and Astronomy) 
Other subject area  None 
Course website 
WebCT 
Taught in Gaelic?  No 
Course description  *** Course discontinued as of 2012/13***
This course provides an introduction to the tools, concepts and phenomena associated with the physics of the microscopic world. The course incorporates an introductory module on experimental physics; it is supported by a programme of tutorial workshops. 
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Prerequisites 

Corequisites  Students MUST also take:
Physics 2A (PHYS08022)

Prohibited Combinations  
Other requirements  None 
Additional Costs  None 
Information for Visiting Students
Prerequisites  None 
Displayed in Visiting Students Prospectus?  Yes 
Course Delivery Information
Not being delivered 
Summary of Intended Learning Outcomes
At the end of the Experimental Physics unit you should:
1) have learned how to keep a lab notebook
2) be able to combine errors in individual measurements
3) be able to fit a straight line to experimental data using leastsquares methods & hence obtain the gradient, yaxis intercept & their uncertainties
4) have learned how to write up your experimental work as a scientific report
At the end of this course of lectures you should:
5) be familiar with the gaseous, liquid & solid phases of matter.
6) appreciate the universality of the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution for systems in thermal equilibrium
7) understand how quantities such as latent heat, critical temperature, surface tension, compressibility, elasticity & thermal expansion can be related to the parameters of the inter atomic/molecular potential
8) understand the zeroth & first laws of thermodynamics & the concepts of internal energy, heat & work
9) understand the concept of electric field, Gauss's Law, and potential associated with charges and perform calculations in simple gemoetries.
10) understand capacitance in simple geometries, effect of polar dielectrics and RC circuits.
11) understand the concept of magnetic fields and forces of moving charges and currents,
12)understrand the relation between current and magnetic field inclduing BioSavert and Ampere's Laws and perform calcualtions for simple geometries.
13) understand the concept of induction including Faraday and Lenz's Law and perform cauclations in simple geometries.
14) state Maxwell's Laws in inegral form and explain their relations to laws of electromagnetism.
15) qualitatively describe the magnetic properties of materials and the physical basis behind them.
16) be familiar with the failures of classical physics & how they relate to the early motivation for quantum theory
17) be able to state and appreciate the consequences of the key paradigmshifting notions of early quantum theory such as the deBroglie Hypothesis & the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
18) be able to discuss the early models of atomic structure & their relation to optical spectra
19) be able to write down the timedependent &  independent Schrodinger wave eqn & state why the latter has the structure of an eigenvalue eqn
20) be able to apply formal wave mechanics (through the Schrodinger eqn) to a range of fundamental problems concerning scattering & bound states. 
Assessment Information
Weekly assignments, 15%
Experimental laboratory, 15%
Degree Examination, 70% 
Special Arrangements
None 
Additional Information
Academic description 
Not entered 
Syllabus 
Properties of Matter
1. Foundations of Matter: Atoms, molecules, bonding, net interaction between molecules, the LennardJones potential
2. States of Matter: Phase behaviour of a simple substance, pVT diagrams, phase changes, critical point and triple point
3. Heat and Thermodynamics: The concept of temperature (the zeroth law),
heat and work, internal energy, the first law, heat capacities
4. The Gaseous State: ideal gases and equations of state, kinetic theory, Boltzmann factor, Maxwell speed distribution, degrees of freedom, equipartition and probability, nonideal gases, mean free path, effective collision cross section, survival equations of state
5. The Liquid State: Structure of liquids, radial distribution function,
vapour pressure, surface energy, capillarity
6. The Crystalline State: the lattice and basis, crystal planes and directions, common crystal structure, Braggs law and xray crystallography, elasticity, thermal expansion, tensile strength
Electricity and Magnetism:
1. Coulomb's Law and Electric Charge the interaction force between point charges, comparison with the gravitational force.
2. Electric Field definition of an electric field, electric field lines, electric field due to a point charge, principle of superposition of fields, fields due to an assembly of point charges, continuous distributions of charge and fields due to a continuous distribution of charge. Electric field from charged ring, charged disc and infinite charged sheets.
3. Electric Flux and Gaussian Surfaces Gauss's Law for electric fields, calculation of electric fields using Gauss's Law, conductors and electric fields, the Faraday's Cage.
4. Electric Potential and Potential Difference conservative electrostatic force, equipotential surfaces and contours, electric potential due to a point charge, principle of superposition of electric potentials, potential due to an assembly of point charges, potential due to continuous distributions of charge, concept of image charges in simple geometries, the relationship between electric field strength and potential, conductors and electric potential.
5. Capacitance and Electrostatic Potential Energy definition of capacitance, capacitance of basic systems, overviews of dielectric materials, capacitors in parallel and series, potential energy in a capacitor, review of current flow, charge and discharge of capacitors, concept of RC circuits.
6. Magnetic Force Law magnetic force acting on a moving point charge, Lorentz force law, motion of a charge in a uniform magnetic field, cyclotron principle, force on a currentcarrying wire, torque on a current loop, principle of the electric motor.
7. Production of Magnetic Fields magnetic field lines, magnetic flux, magnetic field due to a current element, the BiotSavart Law, calculation of the magnetic field on the central axis of a circular current loop, Ampere's Law, calculation of the magnetic field from a solenoid, calculation of the magnetic field due to an infinitely long straight wire, magnetic force between two parallel wires, definition of units of charge and current.
8. Time Dependence Magnetic Fields Experimental evidence of induction, Magnetic Flux, Faraday'' Law of electromagnetic induction, Lenz's Law, induced emf's and electric fields, Maxwell's Law of induction, vinductance and inductors, resistor inductor circuits, the energy stored in a magnetic field and mutual inductance between coil effect on inductance.
9. Magnetic Materials, Basic (classical) description of diamagnetisn, paramagnetism and ferrormagnetism and why certain meterials have a permanent magnetic field. Descriptive basis of the Earth's magnetic field.
10. Maxwell's Equations Gauss's Law for magnetic fields, summary of Maxwell's Equations in integral form, also state in differential form. Summary of future topics.
Quantum
1. Particle properties of radiation: Blackbody radiation. Photoelectric effect. Compton effect.
2. Waveparticle properties of matter: DavissonGermer experiment. Doubleslit experiment.
3. Wavefunction. Probability interpretation. Uncertainty principle.
4. Models of atoms: Thomson and Rutherford models. Bohr model. Atomic spectra.
5. De Broglie waves. Binding energy. FranckHertz experiment.
6. Time Dependent Schrodinger equation.
7. Born interpretation: Probability. Observables and operators. The Hamiltonian.
8. Time independent Schrodinger equation: Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Boundary conditions.
9. Outcomes of measurements: Expectation values. Ehrenfest theorem.
10. Solutions of Schrodinger equation for unbound states: Free particle. Low and high energy step. Reflection and transmission coefficients. Barrier penetration
11. Solutions of Schrodinger equation for bound states: Quantisation of energy. 1D square well. 1D quantum harmonic oscillator. 3D infinite square well.

Transferable skills 
Not entered 
Reading list 
Properties of Matter: D Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids, Edition 3, Cambridge Univesrity Press.
Electromagnetism: Resnick, Halliday and Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, Edition 8 or 9
Quantum: AP French & EF Taylor, An Introduction to Quantum Physics, CRC Press.
Mathematical Background: KF Riley, MP Hobson & SJ Bence, Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering, Cambridge University Press. 
Study Abroad 
Not entered 
Study Pattern 
Not entered 
Keywords  P2B 
Contacts
Course organiser  Prof Malcolm Mcmahon
Tel: (0131 6)50 5956
Email: M.I.McMahon@ed.ac.uk 
Course secretary  Miss Jillian Bainbridge
Tel: (0131 6)50 7218
Email: J.Bainbridge@ed.ac.uk 

