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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of History, Classics and Archaeology : Postgraduate (History, Classics and Archaeology)

Postgraduate Course: Civil Wars in Twentieth Century Europe (PGHC11402)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of History, Classics and Archaeology CollegeCollege of Humanities and Social Science
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummaryThis course aims to look at initial confrontations in Europe from the decade before the First World War to fallout of the breakup of the Soviet Union. During the twentieth-century Europe witnessed a new relationship between violence, culture, and politics. In this period, the continent beheld an extraordinary entanglement of inter-state wars, revolutions and counter-revolutions, civil wars and genocides. The course will examine the confusing concept of 'European civil war,' the impact of the world wars, the relation between revolution and civil war and a selection of the individual cases of civil war, with special attention to Ireland, Russia, Spain and Yugoslavia. The civil wars of this era will be examined in broadly comparative perspective with earlier internal conflicts, paying particular attention to the factors that made Europe in the last century a time of notably violent domestic contests. The major political, ideological and social influences will be treated, with a special focus on violence against civilians, and the relationships between the experiences, representations and memories of civil war, and the shaping of political, social, religious, cultural, gender and other identities in Europe.

It is hoped that this course, along with its sister course 'Revolutions in Twentieth Century Europe' will be a useful addition to the Contemporary History MSc programme, and expand the offerings on modern European History, with the end of the taught MSc 'The Second World War in Europe'.
Course description The range of topics covered may include:
1. Introduction (DK)
2. The Concept of a 'European Civil War' (DK)
3. Russian Civil War I (IL)
4. Russian Civil War II (IL)
5. Irish Civil Wars (NW or ED)
6. Austrian Civil War (DK)
7. Spanish Civil War I (JR)
8. Spanish Civil War II (JR)
9. France's last civil war: the Algerian conflict and the end of the French empire (EC)
10. The Yugoslavia Wars (DK)
11. Post-Soviet Wars (NK)
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements None
Information for Visiting Students
Course Delivery Information
Academic year 2014/15, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  None
Course Start Semester 2
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 200 ( Seminar/Tutorial Hours 22, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 174 )
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 0 %, Coursework 100 %, Practical Exam 0 %
Additional Information (Assessment) One essay of 3,000-3,500 words. Due to the fact that this is a team-taught course there will be no formal oral assessment.
Feedback Not entered
No Exam Information
Learning Outcomes
After successfully completing the course, students will be able to:-

- demonstrate an in-depth knowledge of the most important issues and themes connected to the major European civil wars during the twentieth century;
- independently identify and pursue research topics surrounding the main themes of the course;
- exhibit an understanding for different conceptual approaches to the study of history;
- analyse and contextualize primary source material;
- arrive at independent, well-argued, well-documented and properly referenced conclusions in their coursework essay;
- demonstrate their skills in group discussion and oral presentations;
- demonstrate their written skills, their analytical and theoretical skills in coursework;
- prepare and present their work in seminars and workshops.
Reading List
General Surveys of Europe in the Twentieth Century:

M. Fulbrook (ed.), Europe Since 1945 (2000)
E. Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century (1994)
H. James, Europe Reborn: A History, 1914-2000 (2003)
J. Jackson (ed.), Europe, 1900-1945 (2002)
P. Johnson, Modern Times: A History of the World From the 1920s to the Present (1999)
J. Joll, Europe Since 1870: An International History (1987)
T. Judt, Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2007)
G. Lichtheim, Europe in the Twentieth Century (1972)
M. Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (2000)
R. Vinen, A History in Fragments: Europe in the Twentieth Century (2000)
B. Wasserstein, Barbarism and Civilization: A History of Europe in Our Time (2007)

Works on Civil War in Europe:

Laia Balcells, 'Rivalry and Revenge: Violence against Civilians in Conventional Civil Wars', International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 54, no. 2 (June 2010), pp. 291-313
Elaine K. Denny & Barbara F. Walter, 'Ethnicity and Civil War', Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 51, no. 2 (March 2014), pp. 199-212
H. Eckstein, 'On the Etiology of Internal Wars', History and Theory, no. 412 (1965), pp. 133-163
Robert Gerwarth (ed.), Twisted Paths: Europe 1914-1945 (2007)
S. Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War (2006)
Bill Kissane & Nick Sitter, 'Ideas in Conflict: The Nationalism Literature and the Comparative Study of Civil War', Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, Vol. 19, no. 1 (2013), pp. 38-57
Gina Lei Miller & emily Hencken Ritter, 'Emigrants and the Onset of Civil War', Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 51, no. 1 (January 2014), pp. 51-64
S. Payne, Civil War in Europe, 1905-1949 (2011)
P. Preston, 'The Great Civil War 1914-1945', in T.C.W.Blanning (ed.), The Oxford History of Modern Europe (2000), pp. 148-181
Ibrahim Elbadawi and Nicholas Sambanis, 'How much war will we see? Estimating the prevalence of civil war, 1960-1999', Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 46 (June 2002), 307-344
Zeynep Taydas, Jason Enia & Patrick James, 'Why do civil wars occur? Another look at the theoretical dichotomy of opportunity versus grievance', Review of International Studies, Vol. 37, no. 5 (December 2011), pp. 2627-2650
Monica Duffy Toft, 'Self-Determination, Secession, and Civil War', Terrorism & Political Violence, Vol. 24, no. 4 (September/October 2012), pp. 581-600

Indicative Selection of Works on various Seminar topics:

Pavel K. Baev, 'Defining Civil War by Examining Post-Soviet Conflicts', Terrorism & Political Violence, Vol. 19, no. 2 (Summer 2007), pp. 247-268
V.R. Berghahn, Europe in the Era of Two World Wars: From Militarism and Genocide to Civil Society, 1900-1950 (2005)
Andy Bielenberg, 'Exodus: The Emigration of Southern Irish Protestants During the Irish War of Independence and the Civil War', Past & Present, no. 218 (February 2013), pp. 199-233
Stefano Costalli & Francesco Niccolò Moro, 'Ethnicity and strategy in the Bosnian civil war: Explanations for the severity of violence in Bosnian municipalities', Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 49, no. 6 (November 2012), pp. 801-815
Iva Glisic, 'Caffeinated Avant-Garde: Futurism During the Russian Civil War 1917-1921', Australian Journal of Politics & History, Vol. 58, no. 3 (September 2012), pp. 353-366
Erik C. Landis, 'Who Were the "Greens"? Rumor and Collective Identity in the Russian Civil War', Russian Review, Vol. 69, no. 1 (January 2010), pp. 30-46
Jyrki Loima, 'Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing? The Fate of Russian "Aliens and Enemies" in the Finnish Civil War in 1918', Historian, Vol. 69, no. 2 (Summer 2007), pp. 247-268
Ruth MacKay, 'The Good Fight and Good History: The Spanish Civil War', History Workshop Journal, Vol. 70, no. 1 (Autumn 2010), pp. 199-206
P. B. Minehan, Civil War and World War in Europe: Spain, Yugoslavia and Greece, 1936-1949 (2011)
A. Prazmowska, Civil War in Poland, 1942-1948 (2004)
A. Prazmowska, 'Anticipation of Civil War: The Polish Government in Exile and the Threat Posed by the Communist Movement During the Second World War', Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 48, no. 4 (October 2013), pp. 717-741
Julius Ruiz, 'Seventy Years On: Historians and Repression During and After the Spanish Civil War', Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 44, no. 3 (July 2009), pp. 449-472
T. Snyder, Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin (2011)
Nils B. Weidmann, 'Violence "from above" or "from below"? The Role of Ethnicity in Bosnia's Civil War', Journal of Politics, Vol. 73, no. 4 (October 2011), pp. 1178-1190
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills - Communicating ideas and arguments effectively
- Employing various rhetorical strategies for justifying arguments
- Contextualising various complex historical phenomenon
- Critical thinking and problem solving
KeywordsCiv War 20thC Europe
Course organiserMr David Kaufman
Tel: (0131 6)51 3857
Course secretaryMrs Lindsay Scott
Tel: (0131 6)50 9948
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