School  School of Physics and Astronomy 
College  College of Science and Engineering 
Credit level (Normal year taken)  SCQF Level 9 (Year 3 Undergraduate) 
Availability  Available to all students 
SCQF Credits  20 
ECTS Credits  10 
Summary  This is a twosemester course, the first covering timeindependent and timedependent properties of electric and magnetic fields leading to the vector calculus formulation of Maxwell's Equations and the derivation of electromagnetic waves in vacuo and in media. The second semester covers the electromagnetic properties of waves including propagation, polarisation, interference and diffraction with example from radio wave, optics and xray diffraction.

Course description 
Electromagnetism (20 lectures)
 Integral and differential forms of Gauss's Law. Examples of 1D, 2D, 3D charge distributions.
 Potential. Poisson's Equation. Calculation of electric fields.
 Uniqueness theorem. Solution of electrostatic problems. Method of images.
 Dipole field. Quadrupole field. Multipole expansion.
 Electrostatic boundaries. Polarisation in dielectrics. Surface charges.
 BiotSavart Law. Magnetic vector potential. Calculation of magnetic fields.
 Integral and differential forms of Ampere's Law. Examples of 1D, 2D current distributions.
 Magnetostatic boundaries. Magnetisation. Surface currents.
 Timevarying fields. Faraday's Law. Induction.
 Calculation of self and mutual inductance.
 Displacement current. Maxwell's equations and their solution in vacuo.
 Introduction to Electromagnetic waves.
 Solution of Maxwell's equations in dielectrics.
 Continuity theorem. Conservation laws.
 Poynting vector. Energy storage & transport by waves.
Electromagnetic Waves & Optics (20 lectures)
 Reflection & transmission of waves at boundaries.
 Polarisation states. Polarisers. Malus's Law. Measurement of polarisation.
 Derivation of Fresnel Equations. Brewster's angle.
 Interference. Double slits. Newton's rings. Michelson/TwymanGreen interferometers.
 Multibeam interference. FabryPerot. Antireflection coatings. Dielectric stacks.
 Single slit diffraction. Diffraction grating. Applications in spectroscopy. Xray diffraction.
 Diffraction from circular aperture. Resolution limit. Aberrations.
 Dispersion of Electromagnetic waves. Ionosphere.
 Waves in conductors. Absorption. Skin depth.
 Waveguides & Cavities.
 Coherence. Lasers.
 Basic Fourier optics. Optical transfer function. Concept of spatial frequency.
