Undergraduate Course: Geotechnical Engineering 3 (CIVE09016)
Course Outline
School  School of Engineering 
College  College of Science and Engineering 
Credit level (Normal year taken)  SCQF Level 9 (Year 3 Undergraduate) 
Availability  Available to all students 
SCQF Credits  20 
ECTS Credits  10 
Summary  In this course, students develop further understanding of soil mechanical concepts and learn to apply them to solve geotechnical engineering problems. The course is a continuation of the second year soil mechanics module and extends the student's understanding of the mechanics of soils to include consolidation and shear failure of soil systems. 
Course description 
LECTURES
L1 Course introduction
Aspects of geotechnical design, structure of the course, course content, references with comments, revision on effective stress concept.
L2 Stress distribution in soils 1
Insitu stresses (revision), stress history, lateral stress ratio, normal and overconsolidation, overconsolidation ratio, factors affecting the induced stresses due to applied loads.
L3 Stress distribution in soils 2
Flexible and rigid footing on cohesive and cohesionless soils, Boussinesq elastic solution of point load at the surface, worked example.
L4 Stress distribution in soils 3
Boussinesq elastic solutions of induced soil stresses due to uniform pressure on a circular area, rectangular area and infinite strip, worked example.
L5 Stress distribution in soils 4
Newmark chart, worked example, Westergaard theory, approximate method, bulb of pressure.
L6 Shear strength 1
Revision on total and effective stress Mohr¿s circles, MohrCoulomb failure criterion, experimental failure envelope, cohesion and internal friction angle.
L7 Shear strength 2
Other useful forms of the MohrCoulomb equation, worked example, stress parameters: (tau, sigma), (sigma_1, sigma_3), (t, s), (p, q) and applications.
L8 Shear strength 3 : laboratory measurement of strength
Direct shear: tester, testing procedure, advantages and limitations
Triaxial testing: tester, testing procedure, consolidation stage, volume measurement, pore water pressure measurement, triaxial compression and triaxial extension.
L9 Shear strength 4 : common types of triaxial testing
Unconsolidatedundrained (UU) test, unconfined compression test, consolidatedundrained test (CU), consolidateddrained test (CD).
L10 Shear strength 5 : triaxial test analysis I
Undrained shear strength parameters and effective shear strength parameters, analysis of triaxial test results, worked example.
L11 Shear strength 6 : triaxial test analysis II
Undrained shear strength parameters and effective shear strength parameters, analysis of triaxial test results, worked example.
L12 Shear strength 7
Mechanisms of shearing and straining.
L13 Shear strength 8: mechanical behaviour of sands
Response of deviator stress and volumetric strain under axial straining, critical void ratio, residual strength, angle of repose.
L14 Shear strength 9: mechanical behaviour of clays
Response in drained and undrained tests for normally consolidated and
overconsolidated clays, sensitivity of clays.
L15 Shear strength 1 : pore pressure parameters
Skempton pwp parameters A and B, range of values of the parameters for different clays, worked example. Comments on laboratory sessions 1 and 2 on shear strength measurements.
L16 Strength strength 11: discussion and concluding remarks
Including comments on Laboratory Sessions 1 & 2 on the triaxial test results.
L17 Consolidation and settlement 1
Consolidation vs compression, important questions: magnitude and rate of settlement, pistonspring analogy, oedometer test, undisturbed sample.
L18 Consolidation and settlement 2
Useful parameters from oedometer test: coefficient of compressibility av, coefficient of volume compressibility mv, compression and swelling indices Cc and Cs, empirical relation on Cc, worked example.
L19 Consolidation and settlement 3
Preconsolidation pressure, causes of overconsolidation, graphical procedure for determining preconsolidation pressure.
L20 Consolidation and settlement 4
Terzaghi theory of onedimensional consolidation, hydrostatic and excess pore water pressure (pwp), isochrones of excess pwp at various stages, assumptions, derivation.
L21 Consolidation and settlement 5
Solutions to the consolidation differential equation, boundary conditions and initial conditions, average degree of consolidation for a clay stratum, local degree of consolidation, worked example.
L22 Consolidation and settlement 6
Comparison of experimental and theoretical consolidation curves, determination of coefficient of consolidation cv from oedometer test: squareroot time method.
L23 Consolidation and settlement 7
Determination of coefficient of consolidation cv from oedometer test: logtime method, determination of permeability k from oedometer test results.
L24 Consolidation and settlement 8: discussion and concluding remarks
Including comments on Laboratory Session 3 on the oedometer test simulation exercise.
L25 Lateral pressures and retaining structures 1
Pressures at Ko and limiting equilibrium states, assumptions in earth pressure theory, Rankine theory of active and passive earth pressures.
L26 Lateral pressures and retaining structures 2
Direction of failure planes, surcharge on backfill, deformations to mobilise active and passive states, active and passive pressure distribution.
L27 Lateral pressures and retaining structures 3
Calculation of wall loads, total and effective stress analysis, worked example.
L28 Lateral pressures and retaining structures 4
Coulomb theory of earth pressures, types and designs of retaining wall.
L29 Lateral pressures and retaining structures 5
Further work example. Coulomb theory of earth pressures.
L30 Lateral pressures and retaining structures 6
Types and designs of retaining wall.
L31 Bearing capacity of shallow foundations 1
Adequate factor of safety against shear failure in shallow foundations, loading
response of shallow foundations, bearing capacity theories and equation, strip, square and circular footings.
L32 Bearing capacity of shallow foundations 2
Bearing capacity terms and definitions, footings on clays, footings on sands. Work example.
L33 Bearing capacity of shallow foundations 3
Eccentric and inclined loads, worked example.
L34 Bearing capacity of shallow foundations 4
Further worked example and concluding remarks.
L35 Slope stability 1
Introduction to slope stability. Cuttings and embankments. Translational sliding. Worked example.
L36 Slope stability 2
Infinite slope and frictional material. ¿¿u = analysis. Taylor¿¿s curves.
L37 Slope stability 3
Bishop¿s method of slices, interslice forces, concluding remarks.
L38 Summary and concluding remarks
Recap on the main aspects of foundation design and the topics covered in this course, total stress (undrained) analysis vs effective stress (drained) analysis.
TUTORIALS
The aim is give the students ample opportunities to develop skills to apply the theories and methods learned in the course to common geotechnical engineering situations. The excercises cover a great variety of geotechnical problems in varying degrees of difficulty.
Tutorial Exercise 1 Stress distributions in soils
This tutorial is intended for students to develop skills in calculating the induced stresses in soils due to applied loadings for a variety of situations, including footings of different shapes embedded at different depths.
Tutorial Exercise 2 Shear strength
This tutorial is intended for students to develop skills in solving geotechnical problems which require shear strength calculations, including drained and undrained failure properties, analysis of laboratory test results to evaluate the failure stresses and failure properties, total and effective stress paths and calculations involving pwp parameters.
Tutorial Exercise 3 Consolidation and settlement
This tutorial is intended for developing skills in performing consolidation settlement analyses. The magnitude of settlement and the time taken to reach a certain degree of consolidation are being evaluated for many geotechnical situations.
Tutorial Exercise 4 Lateral earth pressures
This tutorial is intended for developing skills in solving geotechnical problems which require lateral earth pressure calculations.
Tutorial Exercise 5 Bearing capacity in shallow foundations
This tutorial is intended for developing skills in performing bearing capacity calculations for various types of footing.
Tutorial Exercise 6 Slope stability
This tutorial is intended for developing skills in performing slope stability analyses including use of Taylor¿s curves and Bishop¿s method of slices.
LABORATORIES
Laboratory classes are undertaken in the Soil Mechanics Laboratories. The students work in groups under the supervision of a laboratory demonstrator. The aim is to train the students to carry out laboratory triaxial tests, including the analysis of the test results and the evaluation of the relevant properties. A computer simulation of oedometer test and analysis of the test data are also performed.
Laboratory Session 1 UU testing of clay
The undrained shear strength characteristics of a clay are investigated by UU tests. Each group of students is required to carry out sample preparation and testing in a triaxial machine. Sample data and testing data are to be recorded in the data sheets. A brief report is to be submitted for assessment.
Laboratory Session 2 Consolidatedundrained testing of clay
The total and effective stress shear strength characteristics of a clay are investigated by CU tests. Every group of students is required to carry out sample preparation and testing in a triaxial machine. Sample data and testing data are to be recorded in the data sheets. Each group is to carry out one CU test and the results from all groups are then pooled and analysed. A full report is to be submitted for assessment.
Laboratory Session 3 Oedometer testing of clay
The consolidation and compression properties of a cohesive soil are investigated using an oedometer test. The students are first shown how to perform an oedometer test. They then use a computer simulation program to simulate the test. The simulated data are then analysed and the relevant properties deduced. The completed data sheet and graphs are to be handed in for inspection

Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Prerequisites 
Students MUST have passed:
Soil Mechanics 2 (CIVE08019)

Corequisites  
Prohibited Combinations  
Other requirements  None 
Information for Visiting Students
Prerequisites  2nd year undergraduate Soil Mechanics/Geomechanics/Geotechnical Engineering or similar 
High Demand Course? 
Yes 
Course Delivery Information

Academic year 2016/17, Available to all students (SV1)

Quota: None 
Course Start 
Semester 1 
Timetable 
Timetable 
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) 
Total Hours:
200
(
Lecture Hours 38,
Seminar/Tutorial Hours 9,
Supervised Practical/Workshop/Studio Hours 5,
Formative Assessment Hours 1,
Summative Assessment Hours 7,
Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4,
Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours
136 )

Assessment (Further Info) 
Written Exam
75 %,
Coursework
25 %,
Practical Exam
0 %

Additional Information (Assessment) 
Intermittent Assessment: 25%
Degree Examination: 75% 
Feedback 
Opportunities in lectures, laboratories and tutorial sessions for direct feedback; feedback on each coursework submission; Startstopcontinue in Week 4 
Exam Information 
Exam Diet 
Paper Name 
Hours & Minutes 

Main Exam Diet S1 (December)  Geotechnical Engineering 3  2:00   Resit Exam Diet (August)   2:00  
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
 demonstrate ability to carry out consolidation settlement analyses for a variety of geotechnical situations
 demonstrate ability to carry out analyses of the failure of soil systems for a variety of geotechnical situations: footings, shallow foundations, retaining walls, cuttings and embankments
 demonstrate ability to describe the mechanical behaviour of sands and clays
 demonstrate ability to evaluate the consolidation and failure properties of soils from laboratory testing

Reading List
Recommended reading:
J.A. Knappett and R.F. Craig, Craig's Soil Mechanics, Spon Press, 2012.
T.W. Lambe and R.V. Whitman, Soil Mechanics, Wiley, SI version, 1979.
Background reading:
G.E. Barnes, Soil Mechanics: Principles and Practice, Macmillan, 2010.
M. Bolton, A Guide to Soil Mechanics, M.D.& K.Bolton, 1991.
W. Powrie, Soil Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, CRC Press, 2013.
M. J. Tomlinson, Foundation Design and Construction, Prentice Hall, 7th Ed., 2001.

Contacts
Course organiser  Prof Jin Ooi
Tel: (0131 6)50 5725
Email: J.Ooi@ed.ac.uk 
Course secretary  Mrs Lynn Hughieson
Tel: (0131 6)50 5687
Email: Lynn.Hughieson@ed.ac.uk 

