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DEGREE REGULATIONS & PROGRAMMES OF STUDY 2016/2017

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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Geosciences : Earth Science

Undergraduate Course: Ore Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry (EASC10094)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Geosciences CollegeCollege of Science and Engineering
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 10 (Year 4 Undergraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits10 ECTS Credits5
SummaryAn introduction to metalliferous ore deposits, including the use of reflected light microscopy for identifying ore minerals. Mineral deposits formed in a wide variety of geological environments are introduced, emphasising their relationship to petrological processes and geological settings. The importance of rock associations will be emphasised. There are 10, 4-hour sessions, consisting usually of 1-hour lecture and 3-hours' practical. Practical sessions will be concerned with the examination and interpretation of materials discussed in the corresponding lectures.
Course description Week 1 (Lec: IB; Lab: IB)
Introduction to ore minerals and mineral deposits; identification of ore minerals
L1. Minerals as natural resources. Ore deposits and Earth evolution. Classification, composition and identification of ore minerals.Terminology of mineral deposits.

P1. Introduction to ore-forming minerals

Week 2 (Lec: IB; Lab: IB)
Optical Properties of Opaque Minerals: Reflected Light Microscopy
L2 Reflected light microscopy. Preparation of polished specimens; the reflected light microscope - its components and use; optical properties in reflected plane-polarised light (reflectance and bi-reflectance; reflection pleochroism); optical properties in reflected light with crossed polars (anisotropy and polarisation colours); hardness (polishing, scratch, quantitative indentation). Mineral associations textural relationships and paragenetic sequences.

P2 Using the reflected light microscope. Practical identification of type examples of common ore-forming minerals and their textures in reflected light.

Week 3 (Lec: IB; Lab: IB)
Chromite and Platinum Group Element Mineralisation associated with Ultrabasic rocks
L3 Orthomagmatic mineral deposits 1: Cr and PGE (Pt-group elements). Uses of Cr and PGE, the Bushveld Complex and the Rhum Layered intrusion. Understanding Cr deposit formation through the application of phase diagrams. Understanding PGE enrichment via sulphide immiscibiity and melt partitioning. Field and geochemical evidence to support theoretical models.

P3 Orthomagmatic mineral deposits in reflected light and hand-specimen. Examples from the Bushveld Complex of South Africa, the Rhum Layered Intrusion in Scotland, Ballantrae in Scotland, and the Kemi deposit of Finland.

Week 4 (Lec: KS; Lab: IB)
Magmatic ore deposits 2
L3 Orthomagmatic mineral deposits 1: Ni-sulphide deposits and PGE (Pt-group elements). Fe-Ni-Cu-S system and sulphur immiscibility in ultramafic and mafic magmas; formation and occurrence of Ni-sulphide in intrusive (Norilsk-type) and extrusive (komatiite-hosted) environments.

P4 Orthomagmatic mineral deposits in reflected light and hand-specimen.Examples from the Sudbury deposit in Canada, the Kambalda deposit of Australia and immiscibility textures from Whitehaven Steelworks.

Week 5 (Lec: AB, Lab: IB)
Massive sulphide deposits
L5 Exhalative marine volcanogenic sulphides and deposits associated with sedimentary basins. Present-day submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity on mid-ocean ridges and in island arcs. Volcanic massive sulfides (VMS) and sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) and Mississippi-valley type (MVT) classes are introduced, and illustrated with mineral and rock suites from (e.g.) Cyprus, Norwegian Caledonides, Canada, Australia, and Aberfeldy (Scotland).

P5 Hand specimen and reflected light work on massive sulphides. Examples from the East Pacific Rise, Troodos Ophiolite (Cyprus), Sullivan and Geco (Canada), Rammelsberg (Germany), Mt Isa (Australia) and Sulitjelma (Norway)

Week 6. (Lec: AB, Lab: IB)
Sedex Deposits ┐ case study of the Irish ore deposits
L6. Often there are heated debates about how ore deposits form. Using the Irish base-metal orefield ┐ comfortably Europe┐s largest Zn producer ┐ this lecture will use these deposits to show how we can critically test genetic models to refine our understanding, and so help future exploration and exploitation.

P6 Hand specimen and reflected light work on Irish ore deposit material. Introduction to core logging for ore petrologists using 40m of continuous core from Navan, Ireland.

Week 7. (Lec: AB, Lab: IB)
The porphyry to epithermal transition
L7 Cu-Mo deposits. Calc-alkaline magmatism at destructive plate margins and the evolution of a porphyry stock; magmatic and meteoric fluids; hydraulic fracturing; breccias; wall-rock alteration; supergene enrichment. Examples include: Cordilleran belt, USA; Tomnadashan, Loch Tay.

P7 Hand specimen and reflected light work on porphyry deposits. Examples from Tomnadashan (Scotland), Reko Diq (Pakistan) and Silver Bell (USA).

Week 9 (Lec: AB, Lab: IB)
Hydrothermal Vein Mineralisation
L8 Vein deposits: metamorphism and crustal dewatering; orogenic gold deposits (Cononish, Curraghinalt; The Golden Mile).

P8 Hand specimen and reflected light work on hydrothermal deposits Examples from SW England, Coniston, Carrock Fell and Eskdale (Lake District), Tyndrum and the Ochils (Scotland)

Week 9 (Lec: AB, Lab: IB)
Sulphur isotopes: application of sulphur isotopes to ore deposits
L9 An introduction to sulphur isotope geochemistry, and their utility in understanding the genesis of a wide range of major ore deposits, and where they might help exploration programmes.

P9 Assessed Practical Test (microscopy and hand specimens).
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements Students are expected to have a basic understanding of geological concepts and should have completed at least a general introductory geology course. It is anticipated that students have also completed an introduction igneous and metamorphic petrology course.
Additional Costs None
Information for Visiting Students
Pre-requisitesNone
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Academic year 2016/17, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  20
Course Start Semester 2
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 100 ( Lecture Hours 10, Supervised Practical/Workshop/Studio Hours 30, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 2, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 58 )
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 50 %, Coursework 50 %, Practical Exam 0 %
Additional Information (Assessment) Written Exam: 0%, Course Work: 50 %, Practical Exam: 50%.

The course is assessed through course work only composed of 50% of course project and 50% practical exam.

Practical Exam (50%): 1hour duration with two parts. Part 1: Reflected light microscopy; this part of the exam tests the recognition of ore minerals through optical properties of minerals. Students are expected to be able to sketch and describe the textural relationships of ore and gangue minerals and provide an interpretation of their probably ore forming environment and processes based on these observations. Part 2: Hand Specimen Petrology: Students are provided with hand specimens from classic ore assemblages. They are examined on their recognition of ore and gangue minerals, geological relationships and textures required in order to provide an interpretation (with reasoning) of the probable ore-forming environment and processes.

Course project (50%): Consists of two parts, a written report (90%) and a oral panel assessment (10%). Written Report: A 2000 word report detailing the geological characteristics and mode of formation of a deposit or deposits currently under development for mining or a key exploration target. In addition the students will assess the economic and environmental factors which impact upon the development of the resource. Oral Assessment: This takes the form of a panel assessment of 4-5 students over a 30 minute period. Students present their findings from the written report to staff and are asked to justify their conclusions and discuss difference in interpretations of their findings. Assessment is based on quality and accuracy of information presented and the degree of interaction of the group.

Practical Exam: Thursday 23rd March 2017 (During practical class)
Written Report: Monday 13th March 2017, 12 noon
Panel Assessment: Thursday 30th March 2017
Feedback Verbal feedback is given on a weekly basis through interaction with staff and demonstrators during practical sessions on all aspects of the course.

A formative feedback exercise on reflected light microscopy is provided early in the course through the submission of a brief report based on observations made during a practical session. Written feedback is provided on this assignment allowing students to assess their ability in this new technique.

Further written feedback is provided at the end of the course through the marking of the practical examination and course project. Additional further verbal feedback is given to small groups of students at the end of their panel assessments.
No Exam Information
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. Broad and intergrated knowledge of metalliferious ore deposits.
  2. Discuss ore deposits based on their geological environments.
  3. Will be able to use a reflected light micrscope to identify ore minerals.
  4. To perform a critical analysis of literature and assess the economic value of an ore deposit.
Reading List
ROBB, L. INTRODUCTION TO ORE-FORMING PROCESSES. BLACKWELL SCIENCE, 2004.
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Not entered
Special Arrangements None
Additional Class Delivery Information Lectures on Thursdays at 13:10-14:00, Weeks 1-11.
Laboratory sessions on Thursdays at 14:10-17:00, Weeks 1-11.
KeywordsOre Mineralogy,Petrology,Geochemistry
Contacts
Course organiserDr Kate Saunders
Tel: (0131 6)50 2544
Email: Kate.Saunders@ed.ac.uk
Course secretaryMiss Sarah Thomas
Tel: (0131 6)50 8510
Email: Sarah.Thomas@ed.ac.uk
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