Undergraduate Course: Geophysical Measurement and Modelling (EASC10110)
Course Outline
School  School of Geosciences 
College  College of Science and Engineering 
Credit level (Normal year taken)  SCQF Level 10 (Year 3 Undergraduate) 
Availability  Available to all students 
SCQF Credits  20 
ECTS Credits  10 
Summary  This course is about geophysical modelling and measurement, with selected practical examples. It includes the theory of geophysical fields and waves and both passive and active geophysical measurements.
It also includes Fourier analysis and filter theory which form the rationale for the sampling and manipulation of the data.
The course introduces examples of the measurement of geophysical parameters both in the field and in the laboratory, with special attention to the handling of uncertainties in measured quantities. Practical exercises involve both acquisition and interpretation of the data.

Course description 
Semester 1 Lectures
Week
1 Introductory lecture. Handling errors in scientific measurements; accuracy and precision in measurements.
2 Practical: Gravimetry and statistical data analysis Computer exercise
3 Practical: Rock density  Laboratory and computer exercise
4 Practical: Thermal diffusivity of a rock core  Laboratory and computer exercise. Note that timetabling of practicals from week 4 onwards is subject to change and will be explained by the course organiser
5 No lecture
6 Practical: Seismic velocities  Laboratory exercise.
7 No lecture
8 Lecture: Meteorological measurements: atmospheric turbulence.
Practical: Meteorological measurements  Computing exercise.
9 No lecture
10 No lecture
Semester 2 Lectures
1 Telegraph equation and acoustic wave equation: derivation of Telegraph equation; total time derivative and partial time derivative; acceleration of a particle; linearization; equation of continuity; pressure waves in a fluid; constitutive equation; 1D, 2D and 3D acoustic wave equations; solution to the 1D wave equation.
2 Potential fields: Newton's law of gravitation; gravity; gravitational potential; Laplace's equation; satellite orbits, Kepler elements and real satellite motion; Poisson's equation; force due to electric charge and magnetic poles
3 Seismic waves: components of strain and stress; equations of motion in an elastic medium; Hooke's law of elasticity; elastic wave equations, Pwaves and Swaves; particle motion of a plane wave; solutions to the wave equation; normal modes: oscillations of a string.
4 electromagnetic (EM) Waves and heat flow: Maxwell¿s equations; EM constitutive relations; EM wave equations; plane wave solutions of the EM wave equations, skin depth, wavelength; EM propagation in air and free space; EM propagation in conducting media; diffusion equation. Heat flow in solids.
5 Fourier Analysis and Filter Theory: Fourier transform; the deltafunction; resolution and bandwidth; similarity theorem; impulse function; impulse response; linear filters and convolution; convolution theorem; derivative theorem; wavefield transformation.
Sampling theorem and aliasing; filtering; correlation and autocorrelation; deconvolution; effects of noise; upward and downward continuation.
6 Passive Geophysical Measurements:
gravity anomalies; gravity meters, measurements and corrections; gravity gradiometry and gravity measurement on a moving vessel or aeroplane; nonuniqeness of gravity interpretation; magnetics; heat flow; the magnetotellurics method; classical seismology; AdamsWilliamson equation
7 Active geophysical measurements (1) seismic exploration and seismic data acquisition; reflection coefficients for acoustic waves and elastic waves  Zoeppritz equations; seismic exploration and normal moveout correction and stacking; controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) and the role of fluids; conventional CSEM; transient CSEM and MTEM;
8 controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) and the role of fluids; conventional CSEM; transient CSEM and MTEM.
9 Theory  Green's theorem, seismic interferometry and receiver functions.
10 Reserved for revision

Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Prerequisites 

Corequisites  
Prohibited Combinations  
Other requirements  None 
Information for Visiting Students
Prerequisites  Approval of the Course Organiser. 
High Demand Course? 
Yes 
Course Delivery Information

Academic year 2016/17, Available to all students (SV1)

Quota: None 
Course Start 
Full Year 
Timetable 
Timetable 
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) 
Total Hours:
200
(
Lecture Hours 30,
Seminar/Tutorial Hours 17,
Supervised Practical/Workshop/Studio Hours 16,
Feedback/Feedforward Hours 2,
Summative Assessment Hours 3,
Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4,
Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours
128 )

Assessment (Further Info) 
Written Exam
70 %,
Coursework
30 %,
Practical Exam
0 %

Additional Information (Assessment) 
Exam (70%)
Coursework (30%)
The coursework consists of five practical exercises. The students are expected to do all five and write a report on each in no more than four pages. Written feedback will be provided on the first report. One of the subsequent fourpage reports, chosen by the student, will be assessed. The assessment will count for 30%. The threehour exam will be on the whole course, including the practical exercises, and will count for 70%. 
Feedback 
Feedback will be given on the first practical exercise report, which will not be assessed.
Tutorials will be held in most weeks to cover problems set in lectures

Exam Information 
Exam Diet 
Paper Name 
Hours & Minutes 

Main Exam Diet S2 (April/May)  Geophysical Measurement and Modelling  2:00  
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
 demonstrate familiarity with essential mathematical techniques
 demonstrate familiarity with the application of classical physics to Earth problems
 analyse observational data including examples of statistical and numerical methods, graphical interpretation and computer modelling
 appreciate the manipulation of geophysical data to obtain physical properties of the Earth
 write a concise scientific report, or extended abstract, of no more than four pages

Reading List
Blackwell, J &Martin, J., 2011, A Scientific Approach to Scientific Writing, Springer
Gauch, H.J., 2012, Scientific Method in Brief,, Cambridge University Press.
Berendsen, J.C., 2011, A student's guide to data and error analysis, Cambridge University Press.
Lowrie, W., Fundamentals of Geophysics, Cambridge University Press.
Lowrie, W., A Student's Guide to Geophysical Equations, Cambridge University Press.

Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills 
Reportwriting skills 
Keywords  Geophysical equations,Fourier theory,data analysis,laboratory measurements,computer modelling 
Contacts
Course organiser  Prof Kathy Whaler
Tel: (0131 6)50 4904
Email: Kathy.Whaler@ed.ac.uk 
Course secretary  Miss Sarah Thomas
Tel: (0131 6)50 8510
Email: Sarah.Thomas@ed.ac.uk 

