Postgraduate Course: Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy (PGGE11155)
|School||School of Geosciences
||College||College of Science and Engineering
|Credit level (Normal year taken)||SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate)
||Availability||Available to all students
|Summary||Sequence stratigraphic approaches are widely used by industry to understand and predict the distribution of porosity and permeability in subsurface rocks. Over 60% of remaining hydrocarbons are found in carbonate rocks, so this course outlines how sequence stratigraphic models can help reservoir property prediction, and also subsurface exploration appraisal and development.
An introduction to the processes and major controls on carbonate sediment production.
The evolution of this system through geological time
Understand the response of carbonates to changing sea level and accommodation space, and how this differs from clastic sedimentation in response to relative sea level change.
Understand the concepts of seismic and sequence stratigraphy and apply them to realistic datasets
Understand the basic concept of sequence-stratigraphic approach
The main features of carbonate sequence tracts
The characteristics of key surfaces as recognized in core, seismic and wireline logs
Case examples of mixed carbonate-clastic systems
Uses and abuses of carbonate sequence stratigraphy: case studies
The course offers:
1. An introduction to the processes and major controls on carbonate sediment production.
2. The evolution of this system through geological time
3. Understand the response of carbonates to changing sea level and accommodation space, and how this differs from clastic sedimentation in response to relative sea level change.
4. Understand the concepts of seismic and sequence stratigraphy and apply them to realistic datasets
5. Understand the basic concept of sequence-stratigraphic approach
6. The main features of carbonate sequence tracts
7. The characteristics of key surfaces as recognized in core, seismic and wireline logs
8. Case examples of mixed carbonate-clastic systems
9. Uses and abuses of carbonate sequence stratigraphy using case studies
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
||Other requirements|| Early Honours background in Sedimentology.
|Additional Costs|| None.
Information for Visiting Students
|High Demand Course?
Course Delivery Information
|Not being delivered|
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
- Understand the major controls on carbonate production and facies analysis.
- Appreciate the fundamental differences between clastic and carbonate sequence stratigraphic models.
- Have learnt to interpret seismic cross sections and wireline logs in carbonates using sequence stratigraphy.
- Have developed a basic understanding of the controls on carbonate stratigraphic architectures and geometries.
- Appreciate some of the uses and abuses of sequence stratigraphy.
|GENERAL SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY|
Baum, Gerald R., and Vail, Peter R., (1998), A new foundation for stratigraphy: Geotimes, 43 (11), p. 31-35.
[Traces interaction in 70's and 80's of some of major protagonists of sequence stratigraphic paradigm at Exxon Production Research, recording geological principles that were discovered and how some of interpretive disciplins were developed in Alabama Coastal Plain.]
Boyd, R., Suter, J., and Penland, S., (1989), Relation of sequence stratigraphy to modern sedimentary environments: Geology, v. 17, p.926-929.
[Recognition of the sequence stratigraphic features seen in the geologic record seen in the Holcene depositonal setting.]
Catuneanu, Octavian (2009), Towards the standardisation of sequence stratigraphy. Earth Sciences Reviews, v. 92-1-33.
[All you ever wanted to know about the problems of sequence stratigraphic nomenclature!]
Catuneanu, O., Willis, A., and Miall, A. D., 1998, Temporal significance of sequence boundaries: Sedimentary Geology, v. 121, p. 157-178.
[A very complete discussion of the genetic significance of stratigraphic surfaces and how most transgress time and so provide a diachronous signal rather than indicate an instant in time!]
Schlager,W., (2004), Fractal nature of stratigraphic sequences. Geology, 32(3): 185-188.
[Orders in stratigraphic sequences are subdivisions of convenience not indicators of natural structure. Sequences and systems tracts are scale-invariant fractal features on time scales of 103- 106 years. Where do bedding planes (or lamina) the smallest of scales fit in this fractal pattern.]
Schwarzacher, W., (2000), Repetitions and cycles in stratigraphy. Earth-Science Reviews, 50: 51-75.
[Beds formation attributed to either random or cyclic events responding to an oscillating physical system. Beds are elementary steps in a random walk, whose step size (grouping together of beds) increases until they are related to time, though the accuracy of the scale suffers as the time step increases.]
Thorne, Julian, (1992), "An Analysis of the Implicit Assumptions of the methodology of seismic sequence stratigraphy", AAPG Memoir 53: Geology and Geophysics of Continental Margins.
[Identifies geological generalisations & assumptions made when interpreting seismic].
Zalasiewicz, Jan, Alan Smith, Patrick Brenchley, Jane Evans, Robert Knox, Nicholas Riley, Andrew Gale , F. John Gregory, Adrian Rushton, Philip Gibbard, Stephen Hesselbo, John Marshall, Michael Oates, Peter Rawson, Nigel Trewin, (2004), Simplifying the stratigraphy of time, Geology; v. 32; no. 1; p. 1-4;
[Ends distinction between time-rock units of chronostratigraphy and geologic time units of geochronology. intervals of geologic time within rock strata. Proposes 'chronostratigraphy,' and allowing 'geochronology'' to revert to numerical age dating. Makes the little-used formal term 'geochronometry' redundant, with 'eonothem', 'erathem', 'system', 'series' and 'stage' becoming redundant too, in favour of 'eon', 'era', 'period', 'epoch' and 'age'. Geologic time units qualified by 'early' and 'late' but not by 'lower' and 'upper']
Boss, S.K., Rasmussen, K.A., 1995, Misuse of Fisher plots as sea-level curves, Geology, v. 23, no. 3, p. 221-224.
[Holocene transgression used to argue carbonates unable to keep pace with sea level and so do not record accomodation/eustasy]
Drummond, C.N., and Wilkinson, B.H., 1993, Aperiodic accumulation of cyclic peritidal carbonate, Geology, v. 21, p.1023-1026.
[Tabulation of thickness data for carbonates used to suggest that an average depositional period from the mean cycle thickness cannot be derived, or used as proxy for past sea level oscillation frequency].
Goldhammer, R. K., Dunn, P. A., and Hardie, L. A., 1990, Depositional cycles, composite sea-level changes, cycle stacking patterns, and the hierarchy of stratigraphic forcing: Examples from Alpine Triassic platform carbonates: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 102, p. 535-562.
[Landmark paper on the use of the character of cycles to determine their origins].
Handford, R., and Loucks, R. G. 1993, Carbonate depositional sequences and systems tracts responses of carbonate platforms to relative sea-level change, in Loucks, R, G. and Sarg, Rick, eds., Carbonate sequence stratigraphy: recent advances and applications: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 57, p. 3-41.
[All you wanted to know about carbonate system tracts and were afraid to ask?].
Tinker, Scott W. (1998). Shelf-To-Basin Facies Distributions and Sequence Stratigraphy of a Steep-Rimmed Carbonate Margin: Capitan Depositional System, Mckittrick Canyon, New Mexico and Texas, Journal Sedimentary Research, V. 68, No. 6, P. 1146-1174.[Sequence stratigraphic analysis of one of the classic localities].
Westphal, Hildegard, Florian Boehm, and Stefan Bornholdt (2004), Orbital frequencies in the carbonate sedimentary record: distorted by diagenesis Facies, 50:3-11.
[Interesting consideration of the way that carbonate cycles might be modified by diagenesis so sequence stratigraphic surfaces may be modulated by these events].
|Graduate Attributes and Skills
||Seismic interpretation; Wireline log interpretation; Carbonate geoscience; Correlation.
|Keywords||Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy,outcrop,reservoir prediction
|Course organiser||Dr Rachel Wood
Tel: (0131 6)50 6014
|Course secretary||Miss Sarah Mcallister
Tel: (0131 6)50 4917