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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Geosciences : Postgraduate Courses (School of GeoSciences)

Postgraduate Course: Marine Infrastructure and Environmental Change (PGGE11201)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Geosciences CollegeCollege of Science and Engineering
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummaryThe MIEC course , is a follow-on and complement to the Marine Systems and Polices (MSP) course taken in Term 1. The MSP mostly focused on marine conservation practices across different scales and types of marine biomes, policy scales and societal perspectives. The MIEC course is more marine development or 'blue growth' focused, highlighting the exciting but challenging drivers of marine renewable energy, tourism, aquaculture, fisheries, and even deep sea mining. While advances in marine robotics, and sensors enable us to expand our capacity to explore, map and measure marine worlds, this same growing capacity also enables us to further exploit marine species and habitats.

Past, present and future, coastal marine systems have been and will be, deeply altered and changed by marine development projects, affecting ecosystems in different ways across a range of scales and drivers. Post-industrial cities are examples of extreme change to shorelines for ports, trade and urban settlement. Touristic shorelines illustrate an incremental creep of development leading to human-built beaches, seawalls and more. Marine renewable energy a growing field with experiments in tidal, and wave devices along the shore and increasingly moving offshore with expansive wind farm arrays. This new energy legacy builds on already established realms of oil and gas pipeline networks, some of which are now mandated to decommissioned.

Much of the marine realm and growing footprint of infrastructure is invisible to most people, and the permitting phases for many projects are often isolated in space and time, not capturing the incremental and cumulative picture of impacts. The built world of marine alterations is ever changing the coastal marine sea and oceanscapes, in ways little appreciated, both good and harmful. We will examine the concepts of environmental change over time and space, taking into account ecological transitions from pristine to altered. We will integrate our understanding of marine ecosystem science and resulting changes in ecological function with that of ocean governance, through becoming familiar with the different scales and types of marine planning, impact assessments against a backdrop of different types of 'blue growth' marine projects.

The MIEC course is designed around several different, but integrated, learning frameworks, including:

1) Integration of marine science with marine policy and governance:
- Ocean Governance - International Treaties, e.g. UN LAW OF THE SEA
- EU Directives and Policies - e.g. Blue Growth, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Strategy Framework Directive
- National Marine Acts and Plans

2) Marine Planning, project development phases, environmental assessment tools and concepts:
- Marine spatial planning
- Strategic impact assessments
- Seascape character assessments
- Environmental impact assessments
- Habitat and species assessments
- Ecological mitigation, restoration and biodiversity offsetting,
- Role of project permitting, conditions, and compliance monitoring
- Cumulative impact assessments

3) Ecological change over time and space - natural vs 'created' environments - nearshore to offshore :
We will explore ecological impacts (positive and negative) of projects which are located from nearshore to offshore, and corresponding sectors ranging from coastal defenses, marinas, aquaculture, tidal and wave energy, wind farms, to oil and gas decommissioning.

4) Stakeholder interests and drivers: We will gain insights on opportunities and challenges of blue growth from different ocean users, with guest lectures from academia, NGOs, government, consultancy and industry working on different types of marine development projects.

Course description The overall flow of the course is outlined on the next page. To support the course, key readings and web sites will be provided as primers in advance, while additional readings and information will be provided during respective lectures and presentations, resulting in a 'class knowledge library' that is constructed along the way.

i. Weekly themes and focus: connecting ecological themes, policies and processes across the course.
ii. Student-lead presentations: Weekly presentations on different aspects of marine spatial and environmental planning and project development processes. The presentations may be videoed for learning and feedback.
iii. Student-lead Discussion Groups: As part of the presentations, students will have selected 2-3 readings for class to read in advance, and end the presentations with topical questions that will be discussed in groups to more deeply examine key concepts and material.
iv. Case study Project Profiles: Weekly guest lecturers and instructors spanning a range of ecological horizons (nearshore to offshore), project types and sectors, project implementation phases and stakeholder views. Guest speakers will deliver novel perspectives on a variety of projects giving students a broader context and understanding of the opportunities and challenges associated with different marine sectors, spanning academia, industry, non-governmental and government.
v. MIEC - Blue Growth Symposium: the last day of class, in which the class members will present a 5 min 'speed talk' on their individual 'blue papers*', which have been developed as part of the coursework, based on a topic, ecosystem and issue of their own choosing. (* The preparation of 'blue posters' rather than 'papers' is being explored and will be determined before the start of the course.)

FRIDAYS Course Outline and Timing
930-945: Class organization questions, set up.
945-1030: Group Presentations
1030-1115: Discussion Groups
1115-1130: Break
1130-1230: Guest Lecture presentation, questions
1230-1300: General class questions

(NOTE: The listed timing order, topic focus and guest speakers are indicative, and may change due to availability).

W1 - 20 Jan
Lecture 1: Introductory: Meriwether Wilson and Lea Ann Henry (TBC)
- Course dynamics (MW)
- "Blue Growth" Themes, Horizons and Policies (MW)
- Environmental Change over Time and Policy Evolutions (MW)
- Evolving Roles of Marine Science and Technology (LAH)

W2 - 27 Jan
Group Presentation 1 & Discussion Groups: Marine Spatial Planning (MSP)
Case study: Scotland's National Marine Plan (Marine Scotland) - or - Urbanizing Coasts (TBC)

W3 - 3 Feb
Group Presentation 2 & Discussion Groups: Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment (SEA/SIA)
Case Study: Marinas, Invasive Species and Biosecurity (B. Giesler, SAMS/UoE)

W4 - 10 Feb
Group Presentation 3 & Discussion Groups: Social and Seascape Character Assessments (SCA)
Case Study: Marine Aquaculture (Chris Read, Marine Harvest) (TBC)

W5 - 17 Feb
Group Presentation 4 & Discussion Groups: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Case Study: Marine Energy - Wind Farms (Tom Young, RockPower LTD) (TBC)

ILW - 24 Feb Innovative Learning Week - no formal class, work on individual blue growth papers and draft abstracts.

W6 - 3 March
Group Presentation 5 & Discussion Groups: Habitats Regulations Assessment (HRA)
Case Study : Marine Animals Interactions with Marine Infrastructure (TBC)

W7 - 10 March
Group Presentation 6 & Discussion Groups: Mitigation, Offsetting and Monitoring
Case Study: Oil and Gas Decommissioning "Rigs to Reef" (Dr. Henry, UoE) (TBC)

W8 - 17 March
Group Presentation 7 & Discussion Groups: Cumulative Impact Assessments
Case Study: James Harrison, International Treaties and Deep Sea Mining, UoE School of Law

W9 - 24 March
Blue Growth Symposium

Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites It is RECOMMENDED that students have passed Marine Systems and Policies (PGGE11186) OR Marine Systems and Policies (UG) (EASC10083)
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements If students have not passed the recommended courses they should seek permission from the course organiser for entry to the course on a case by case basis.
Additional Costs None
Information for Visiting Students
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Academic year 2016/17, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  24
Course Start Semester 2
Course Start Date 16/01/2017
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Please contact the School directly for a breakdown of Learning and Teaching Activities
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 0 %, Coursework 100 %, Practical Exam 0 %
Additional Information (Assessment) 1. Group presentations throughout the course on assigned marine planning themes and processes of environmental reviews and project development stages (40%)
2. Individual project paper analysing overall project dynamics in time and space of one's choice. (60%)
Feedback Not entered
No Exam Information
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. General critical thinking and analytical understanding of diverse drivers and impacts around coastal marine environmental assessments and project management.
  2. Exposure to different NGO, industry and government perspectives on marine infrastructure projects and projections.
  3. Organisation skills to plan, execute and report on scientific investigation and management evaluations.
  4. To participate in individual and team activities toward the completion of assignments and goals.
  5. Critical thinking with regard to the evaluation of sources of information, the feasibility of management options and interpretation of outcomes.
Reading List
The following are indicative primer readings for the assessment modes. Additional readings may be added to reflect speaker topics.

McCauley et al. (2015) Marine defaunation: Animals loss in the global ocean. Science 347 (6219)
Blencker et al. ((2015) Past and future challenges in managing European Seas. Ecology & Society 20 (1):40
Bulleri & Chapman (2010) The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments. J. Appl. Ecol. 47(1) 26-35
Review EU Blue Growth Directive and Website
UNEP, 2012. Green economy in a Blue World - Synthesis Report.
EU Atlas Project: A Trans-Atlantic assessment and deep-water ecosystem-based spatial management plan for Europe

Airoldi et al (2007). Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 45, 345-405.
Barbier et al (2011) Value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monographs, 81(2), pp.
Morris (2013) Managed realignment as a tool for compensatory habitat creation - a re-appraisal (Ocean and Coastal Management 73: 82-91).
Dafforn et al 2015. Marine Urbanization: an ecological framework for designing multifunctional artificial structures. Front Ecol Envion. doi:10.1890/140050
Wilson, AMW et al (2015). Rethinking marine infrastructure policy practice. Marine Policy 53 (2015) 67-82.

Firth et al. (2014) Between a rock and a hard place: Environmental and engineering considerations when designing coastal defence structures. Coastal Engineering 87 (2014) 122-135
Mineur et al. (2012) Changing coasts: Marine aliens and artificial structures. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An annual review 50: 189-234

Esteves et al, 2012. Social Impact Assessment - the state of the art. In: Impact Assessment and Project Apprasial, 30:1, 34-42.
Vanclay, 2012. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management. Ocean & Coastal Management 68 (2012) 149e156
Read and Fernandes (2003) Management of environmental impacts of marine aquaculture in Europe. Aquaculture 226(1-4) 139-163

Inger et al. (2009) Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research. (Journal of Applied Ecology 46(6) 1145-1153).
Gill et al. (2005) Offshore renewable energy: Ecological implications of generating energy in the Coastal zone. J. Appl. Ecol 42(4) 605-615

Russell et al (2014) Marine Mammals trace anthropogenic structures at sea. Current Biology 24(14) R638-R639
Bailey et al (2010) Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm and its potential effects on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 880-87.
Hastie, et al (2015) Sound exposure in harbor seals during the installation of an offshore wind farm: predictions of auditory damage. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 631-640.

Fujii (2015) Temporal variation in environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages around an offshore oil platform in the North Sea. Marine Environmental Research 108: 69-82 and-pipelines

WEEK 8 assessments
Levin, et al 2016. Defining "serious harm" to the marine environment in the context of deep-seabed mining, Marine Policy 74 (2016) 245-259
Jaeckel, et al. 2016. Sharing benefits of the common heritage of mankind - Is the deep seabed mining regime ready? Marine Policy 70 (2016) 198-204.
Harrison, James, Making the Law of the Sea: A Study in the Development of International Law, (Cambridge University Press, 2011)
Warner, RM. 2014. Conserving marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction: co-evolution and interaction with the law of the sea. Frontiers in Marine Science, 20 May 2014.

Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Students will acquire and develop the following transferable skills:
1. General critical thinking and analytical understanding of diverse drivers and impacts around coastal marine environmental assessments and project management.
2. Exposure to different NGO, industry and government perspectives on marine infrastructure projects and projections.
3. Organisation skills to plan, execute and report on scientific investigation and management evaluations.
4. To participate in individual and team activities toward the completion of assignments and goals.
5. Critical thinking with regard to the evaluation of sources of information, the feasibility of management options and interpretation of outcomes.
Keywordsmarine infrastructure,built environments,project development,mitigation,environmental change
Course organiserDr Meriwether Wilson
Tel: (0131 6)50 4311
Course secretaryMiss Susie Crocker
Tel: (0131 6)51 7126
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