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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Geosciences : Earth Science

Undergraduate Course: Earth Dynamics (EASC08001)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Geosciences CollegeCollege of Science and Engineering
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 8 (Year 1 Undergraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummaryVolcanoes, earthquakes, mountain chains and the diversity of the Earth's rocks tell us that the Earth has been a dynamic planet since its formation 4.6 billion years ago. This course has two main aims: to impart an understanding of the processes which shape the Earth, and to develop practical skills in recognising the evidence of these processes in rocks, both in the field and in the laboratory. The course will have a primary focus on the materials of which the Earth is made, how the major constituents are distributed between core, mantle and crust and how this changes with time through the agencies of plate tectonics and volcanism. Geological resources, from energy, to minerals, and water, are essential for all aspects of society. How these resources are categorised, and where they are they formed is part of our fundamental understanding of the Earth as an integrated system.
Course description Week 1.
L1 Course Introduction. Earth in space and its Solar System context. Meteorites, volcanoes and the materials and composition of the Earth (De Hoog)
L2 - Earth through time: an introduction to the evolution of the Earth, geological time and the evidence for a 4550 million year old planet (De Hoog)
L3 - Earth Structure. An introduction to the lithosphere and asthenosphere, heat flow, the evidence for plate tectonics, and continental versus oceanic plates (Tait)

IT exercise 1: Web based Virtual Fieldtrip ¿ accessed via Learn.
Practical 1: Assay of the Earth ¿ Earth materials and Composition

Week 2.
L4 Constructive plate margins. Plate boundaries, sea floor spreading, oceanic crust and magnetic anomalies (Tait)
L5 Destructive plate margins: Subduction zones, continental collision and orogenesis (Tait)
L6 Plate Motion and sedimentary processes (Tait)

Practical 2: The nature of the lithosphere and asthenosphere

September 30th OR October 1st 2017. FIELD TRIP 1: PEASE BAY & SICCAR POINT.
ATTENDANCE IS COMPULSORY. Meet at Appleton Tower, ready to depart at 09:00.

Week 3.
L7 Isostasy and tectonic driving forces (Tait)
L8 Continental rifting and sedimentation (Tait)
L9 Introduction to geophysics, seismology and the structure of the Earth. Importance of geophysics, and investigation of the structure of the deep earth through seismology (Main)

Practical 3: Aspects of the motions of lithospheric plates

Week 4.
L10 - Earthquakes and seismotectonics. Different types of waves which travel through the Earth, and examine how seismology can be used to locate, measure and understand earthquakes (Main)
L11 - Refraction and reflection seismology. Differences between refraction and reflection seismology and how each technique allows us to comprehend the subsurface. Using active seismology to assess near surface solid earth structures (Main)
L12- Magnetism. Earth¿s magnetic field, geophysical techniques which use magnetic properties of the solid Earth to understand geological processes (plate tectonics, sea-floor spreading etc) (Main)

Practical 4: Be a Seismologist

Week 5.
L13 Gravity measurements, how certain corrections needs to be applied to measurements to yield useful results, and what the results mean to understanding the subsurface (Main)
L14 Magmas and igneous rocks; why volcanoes form; igneous intrusions (Fitton)
L15 Volcanoes and volcanic hazards (Fitton)

Practical 5: Introduction to a microscope- optical mineralogy.
IT exercise2: Introduction to Holyrood Park ¿ Learn exercise to be completed before field trip.

Sat 21st October OR Sun 22nd October 2017. FIELD TRIP 2: Holyrood Park / Salisbury Crags / Arthur¿s Seat

ATTENDANCE IS COMPULSORY. Meet at 09:00 sharp at the grassy parkland area near the roundabout just inside from the St Leonards / Pollock Halls entrance to Holyrood Park. Field trip ends at approximately 12:30 pm.

Week 6.
L16 Introduction to rock-forming minerals (Fitton)
L17 Basic crystallography (Fitton)
L18 Composition and texture of igneous rocks; mineralogy and classification (Fitton)

Tutorial: Maps practical exercise

Week 7.
L19 Magma evolution and fractional crystallisation (Fitton)
L20 Supervolcanoes, hot-spots and large igneous provinces (Fitton)
L21 Non-silicate minerals; economic mineral deposits (Fitton)

Practical 7. Salisbury Crags exercise; Salisbury Crags dolerite under the microscope; Top-ten silicate minerals.

Week 8.
L22 Deformation of rocks: Stress, strain and deformation markers. Brittle and ductile behaviour and their manifestations ¿ faults, shear zones and folds. Folding and thrusting in mountain belts young and old (De Hoog)
L23 Metamorphism: The process of metamorphism. Change in mineralogy and texture to yield new rocks from old. Recrystallisation, reaction, equilibrium. The main metamorphic rock types in brief, arranged by texture and structure (De Hoog)
L24 Metamorphic rocks and minerals: The key metamorphic minerals in rocks of shale-like composition.
Factors of metamorphism: Pressure (P), temperature (T), fluids and strain. Timescale as a key parameter (De Hoog)

Practical 8: Igneous rocks in hand specimen and under the microscope; fractional crystallisation exercise; non-silicate minerals in hand specimen.

Week 9.
L25 Contact Metamorphism - aureoles, thermal gradients and mineral zones in pelites. Isograds and index minerals. The Ballachulish example. (De Hoog)
L26 Regional metamorphism ¿ its scale and importance. Barrows zones, mineral isograds and index minerals; relations to P-T diagrams and mineral stabilities (De Hoog)
L27 Geological resources. Types of resource : Energy, fossil and renewable; Minerals and geological processes; Environmental Services, air and water; Impact on human welfare through history (Haszeldine)

Practical 9: Deformation in the Earth.

Week 10.
L28 Fossil energy, natural processes of genesis, maturation and concentration. Unconventional hydrocarbons. Extraction methods and impacts of use, such as air quality, radiation, climate change (Haszeldine)
L29 Minerals: process styles of enrichment; sedimentary, industrial, metallic and Rare. Technology demands, trade, security of supply (Haszeldine)
L30 Water resources and supplies in UK and globally, processing demands, population change. Ocean acidification and sea level change. Outlook for human control or adaptation, mining sea bed and asteroids (Haszeldine)

Practical 10: Metamorphic rocks and minerals; Contact and Regional Cases.

Week 11.
Revision week - Revision question and answer session with course lecturers. Date and time to be announced later.
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements None
Additional Costs NONE
Information for Visiting Students
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Academic year 2017/18, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  156
Course Start Semester 1
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 200 ( Lecture Hours 30, Seminar/Tutorial Hours 2, Supervised Practical/Workshop/Studio Hours 27, Fieldwork Hours 14, Feedback/Feedforward Hours 3, Summative Assessment Hours 2, Revision Session Hours 1, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 117 )
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 60 %, Coursework 40 %, Practical Exam 0 %
Additional Information (Assessment) Written Exam: 60%, Course Work: 40%, Practical Exam: 0%.

You must pass both components to obtain an overall pass.

Course Work
The course work component includes your weekly practical workbooks as well as field trip attendance and notebook write up. The practical workbooks will be examined twice during the semester. The first practical mark will be based on work completed in selected sections the first set of practicals (Block 1, up to the end of Week 5), the second on work completed in selected sections of the second set of practicals (Block 2, practicals in Weeks 7-10). Your practical books will be submitted at our Assessment Submission Point (Grant Institute, Teaching Organisation Office) for marking mid-way through the semester (end of Week 5 to beginning of Week 6) and following your Week 10 practical. They will be marked within a week of submission and will be available for collection by you in time for your next practical or for end-of-semester revision.
Incomplete practicals or practical workbooks, or absence from a practical where workbooks are marked, will be penalised unless you have special circumstances supported by doctor's note or letter from your Student Support Co-ordinator. Be sure to submit your two field-related IT assignments within your workbook.
In addition to the practical workbook you are required to submit your field notebook for marking after each field trip. The second mark will contribute towards your overall 'practical' mark.

Written Exam (Theory Examination):
A two-hour theory exam based on short answers and multiple choice questions will be held at the end of Semester 1. Further information will be provided on this in due course.
The Semester 1 Theory examination will be worth 60% of your final mark.
The theory re-sit examination will be held in August 2017.

If you fail to pass both components at first attempt the following will happen:
Fail coursework, pass exam: Alternative coursework will be assigned which requires all exercises in the practical folder to be completed AND extra petrographic description work. Deadline to submit work to TO Grant Institute 3 pm March 28th, 2017. Exam mark stands no resit allowed.
Fail exam, pass course work: Resit exam in August exam diet; Coursework mark carried forward.
Fail exam, fail coursework: Resit exam in August exam diet; Alternative coursework to be completed including all exercises in the practical folder AND extra petrographic description work. Deadline to submit work to TO Grant Institute 3 pm March 28th, 2018.

Marks should be regarded as provisional until after the final examiner's meeting, which will be held in January 2018.

Assessment deadlines
Practical workbooks to be handed in after the practical during week 5 or week 6 depending on practical session as follows:
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday practical classes to hand in by 4pm on Friday Week 5.
Thursday, Friday practical classes to hand in by 4 pm on Monday of Week 6.
Feedback Feedback is the process of giving constructive comment to you so that you can improve your performance. During this course there is an opportunity for verbal feedback during all practical sessions. Your practical folders will be assessed twice during the course and comments made on the quality of work and where improvement is possible. There are also two field trips. After the first trip, formative feedback will be provided which can feed forward to your assessed notebook mark after the second field excursion.
If at any point during the course you require clarity please contact the CO in the first instance.
Exam Information
Exam Diet Paper Name Hours & Minutes
Main Exam Diet S1 (December)Earth Dynamics2:00
Resit Exam Diet (August)2:00
Learning Outcomes
Students will develop a broad understanding of key, defining geological concepts and theories: the internal divisions of the Earth and its dynamic evolution via plate tectonic processes, the formation of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the mechanisms by which rocks deform and break at depth in the Earth, and the dynamic geological settings in which these processes operate. This will be achieved through routine, geological techniques: laboratory practicals including hand specimen and thin section analysis, fieldwork and ICT exercises. These ICT exercises will involve interpretation of deep Earth processes from geophysical data sets and virtual fieldwork exercises. Practical classes will be the basis for investigating professional level problems and issues to formulate evidence-based solutions using the techniques listed above. During these practical sessions students are expected to manage their time effectively and work both independently and with others.
Reading List
Dynamic Earth - An introduction to Physical Geology by EH Christiansen & WK Hamblin
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Understanding Earth by JP Grotzinger & TH Jordan
Freeman 7th edition

General interest reading:
Volcanoes and the making of Scotland by B Upton
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Not entered
Additional Class Delivery Information Students must take ONE of the following practical classes each week. EITHER Mon 2-5pm OR Tue 9-12noon OR Wed 2-5pm OR Thur 2-5pm OR Fri 2-5pm.
Students must sign up for practical classes on LEARN during Welcome week (week 0) as these classes start in week 1.
Course organiserDr Cees-Jan De Hoog
Tel: (0131 6)50 8525
Course secretaryMrs Nicola Clark
Tel: (0131 6)50 4842
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