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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Geosciences : Postgraduate Courses (School of GeoSciences)

Postgraduate Course: Spatial Modelling and Analysis (PGGE11236)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Geosciences CollegeCollege of Science and Engineering
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummaryThis course provides a broad introduction to the methods of representing the real world and storing and analysing geospatial information. Students will learn through a series of lectures, closely supported by related practical sessions, how to store various types of geographical data in databases and GIS, and to conduct various methods of spatial or geographical analysis upon these data.
Course description Initial lectures explain the theory behind storage models and structures, emphasising vector and raster models, with a review of the so-called 2.5-dimensional (surface-based), 3-D and temporal structures. The course introduces database management systems and database methods in the context of GIS and also introduces the concept of formal data modelling. A practical stream provides a robust introduction to SQL using the Oracle relational database management system and an exercise in digital terrain modelling. In the latter part of the course, some of the fundamental concepts and concerns of spatial analysis are introduced, through lectures and practical work. These include spatial autocorrelation; the modifiable areal unit problem; distance metrics; analysis in gridded vs continuous spaces; overlay analysis; suitability analysis and least cost path methods; Boolean and continuous classification; networks; shortest path through a network; errors and uncertainty in geographical data. Through a series of practicals, students learn to conduct these analysis using the ArcGIS software and its extensions. Students then conduct a project in small groups to find a green corridor using least cost path methods.

Programme: Lectures by weeks
1. Introduction to spatial data models
2. Formal Data Modelling and Database Management
3. A typology of spatial analytical methods. Transformations. Map Algebra
4. Topology & Vector Data Models and Structures
5. Raster and Hierarchical Data Models and Structures
6. Reading week-Kindrogan Field Course
7. Overlay analysis: Constraint mapping and suitability analysis; weighting of evidence
8. Network Analysis, routing problems including shortest path through a network
9. Adding additional dimensions
10. Uncertainty Analysis
11. Future trends in Spatial Modelling and Spatial

Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements None
Information for Visiting Students
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Academic year 2017/18, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  40
Course Start Semester 1
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 200 ( Lecture Hours 20, Supervised Practical/Workshop/Studio Hours 20, Feedback/Feedforward Hours 5, Summative Assessment Hours 100, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 51 )
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 25 %, Coursework 75 %, Practical Exam 0 %
Additional Information (Assessment) Written Exam 25%
Assessments: Database 1 SQL (25%); Databases 2 ER diagramming (25%); Spatial 1 least cost path project (25%).

Feedback Students will be given feedback on a formative assessment and summative assessments, within two weeks of submission (shorter where a later assessment is dependent on an earlier)
Exam Information
Exam Diet Paper Name Hours & Minutes
Main Exam Diet S1 (December)Spatial Modelling and Analysis (PGGE11236)1:00
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. Understand the main methods for storing and encoding geospatial information in computer systems
  2. Understand the basics of relational databases and SQL
  3. Understand the principal spatial data types and be familiar with a variety of methods of spatial analysis as applicable to each.
  4. Be able to implement these principles using the ORACLE RDBMS and ArcGIS.
  5. Be able to undertake individual and group practical work, and write assignments within the specified parameters and to a professional standard
Reading List
Burrough, P. A. (1992) Are GIS data structures too simple-minded? Computers and Geosciences, 18 (Special Issue), 395-400.
Burrough, P. A. and Frank, A. U. (1996) Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. Taylor & Francis, London.
Date, C. J. (2003) An Introduction to Database Systems (8th edition). Addison-Wesley.
Dutton, G. (1972) Harvard papers on topological data structures. Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics & Spatial Analysis, Vols. 1 - 8.
Egenhofer, M. J. and Herring, J. R. (1991) High level spatial data structures for GIS. In Maguire, D. J., Goodchild, M. F. and Rhind, D. W. (Eds.) Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications. Longman, Harlow. Chapter 16.
ESRI (2013). A New Dimension.
Franklin, W. R. (1991) Computer systems and low-level data structures for GIS. In Maguire, D. J., Goodchild, M. F. and Rhind, D. W. (Eds.) Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications. Longman, Chapter 15.
Gahegan, M. (1989) An efficient use of quadtrees in GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 3 (3), 201-214.
Healey, R. G. (1991) Database Management Systems. In Maguire, D. J., Goodchild, M. F. and Rhind, D. W. (Eds.) Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications. Longman, Harlow. Chapter 18.
Howe, D. R. (2001) Data Analysis for Data Base Design. (3rd edition) Butterworth Heinemann, London.
Ibbs, T. J. and Stevens, A. (1988) Quadtree storage of vector data. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 2 (1), 43-56.
Langran, G. (1992) Time in Geographic Information Systems. Taylor & Francis, London.
Laurini, R. and Thompson D. (1992) Fundamentals of Spatial Information Systems. Academic Press, London.
Li, Z., Zhu, Q. and Gold, C. (2005) Digital Terrain Modelling: Principles and Methodology, CRC Press.
Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rhind, D.W. (2005) Geographic Information Systems and Science (2nd edition) Wiley. (Chapters 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10)
Peuquet, D. J. and Marble, D. F. (Eds.) (1990) Introductory Readings in Geographic Information Systems. Taylor & Francis, London. Chapters 6 - 9, 15 - 20.
Piwowar, J. M., Ledrew, E. F. and Dudyeha, D. J. (1990) Integration of spatial data in vector and raster formats in a GIS environment. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 4 (4), 429-444.
Raper, J, Rhind, D.W. and Shepherd, J.W. (1992) Postcodes: The New Geography. Longman.
Rigaux, P., Scholl, M. and Voisard, A. (2002) Spatial Databases with Application to GIS. Morgan Kaufmann.
Shekhar, S. and Chawla, S. (2002) Spatial Databases: A Tour. Prentice Hall.
Strohm,R. (2011) Oracle Database Concepts 11g (Release 1). Oracle Corporation
Stuart, N. (1990) Quadtree GIS: Pragmatics for the present, prospects for the future. GIS/LIS '90, ASPRS, 373-382.
van der Knapp, W. G. M. (1992) The vector to raster conversion: (mis)use in GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 6 (2), 159-170.
van Oosterom, P. (1993) Reactive Data Structures for Geographic Information Systems, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wachowicz, Monica (1999) Object-oriented design for temporal GIS.Taylor & Francis, London.
Wise, Stephen (2014) GIS Fundamentals CRC Press, London, Second Edition.
Worboys, M. F. and Duckham, M. (2004) GIS: A Computing Perspective. CRC Press, Second Edition.
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills This course will provide the students with a range of highly marketable skills and introduce them to technologies sought after by employers. These technical skills relate closely to the employment opportunities identified by our Industrial External Examiner, professional bodies and graduate feedback. The students also gain skills in logical thinking, project work, organisation and report-writing.
Additional Class Delivery Information Semester 1, Mondays 2pm-6pm (Lecture Theatre 2.13 2pm-4pm and lab 1.26 4pm-6pm). Institute of Geography, Drummond Street
KeywordsNot entered
Course organiserDr Zhiqiang Feng
Tel: (0131) 242 6374
Course secretaryMrs Karolina Galera
Tel: (0131 6)50 2572
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