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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences : Language Sciences

Postgraduate Course: Language and Identity in Bilingual Settings (LASC11008)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences CollegeCollege of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummaryAn advanced study of bilingualism as a sociolinguistic phenomenon. The course focuses on macro-societal patterns of language use in bilingual communities as well as on micro-interactional language choices. It examines aspects of language shift and maintenance. And it foregrounds the importance of the notion of 'linguistic human rights' in relation to language policy and planning.
Course description This course examines issues in bilingualism / multilingualism as sociolinguistic and interactional phenomena. The aim is to understand bilingualism as a sociolinguistic phenomenon, looking at its macro-societal level as well as at its interactional dimension. Therefore, the course straddles the area of Sociolinguistics and that of Discourse Analysis. The course covers issues such as the functional distribution of languages in bi / multilingual communities, language choice in bi / multilingual conversation, bi / multilingualism in specific settings (e.g. family settings, educational settings, workplace settings), etc. The following is an indicative list of content:

Week-by-week topics

Week 1: Definition and scope of bilingualism
Week 2: Macro societal patterns of language choice in bilingual settings
Week 3: Language policy in bilingual settings
Week 4-5: Micro interactional accounts of language choice in bilingual settings
Week 7: Grammar and bilingual language use
Week 8: Bilingualism in educational settings
Week 9: Bilingualism in family settings
Week 10: Bilingualism in work place settings
Week 11: Language and human rights
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements None
Information for Visiting Students
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Not being delivered
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. describe patterns of language use in bilingual communities both synchronically and diachronically
  2. collect and analyse bilingual interactional data
  3. demonstrate understanding of language choice acts as acts of identity
  4. demonstrate understanding of issues of bilingualism in various institutional settings, including language rights
  5. discuss the practical implications of the above for significant areas of social life such as social policy
Reading List
Wei, Li (2000) (ed.) The Bilingualism Reader. London: Routledge (available online)

Myers-Scotton, C. (2006) Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Auer, P. and Wei, Li (2007) (eds.) Handbook of Multilingualism and Multilingual Communication. Berlin: Mouton de gruyter.

Gafaranga, J. (2007) Talk in Two Languages. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Mcmillan (e-book available).

Cenoz, J. (2013). Defining multilingualism. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 33, 162-189 (available online)

Martin-Jones, M. and Romaine, S (1986). Semilingualism: A half-baked theory of communicative competence. Applied Linguistics, vol. 7, 26-38 (available online)

Ng Bee Chin and Gillian Wigglesworth (2007) Bilingualism: An advanced resource book. London: Routledge, Section A, unit 1&unit 2 and section B, unit 1 and unit 2.

Fishman, J. (1967) Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues, vol. 23, 29-38 (reprint in Li Wei (ed.) (2000), The Bilingualism Reader. London: Routledge, 81-88. Also see Part VI 'Living in a multilingual society' in P. Auer and Li Wei (eds.) (2007).

Hudson, A. (2002). Outline of a theory of diglossia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 157, 1- 48.

Sexana, M. (2014). Critical diglossia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 225, 91-112.

Gafaranga, J. (2007) Interactional order in talk in two languages: Identity-related accounts. In Talk in Two Languages, 83-115.

Myers-Scotton, C. (1988). Code-switching as indexical of social negotiations. In M. Heller (ed.), Codeswtching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 151-186 (reprint in Li Wei (ed.) (2000), The Bilingualism Reader. London: Routledge, 137-165)

Gafaranga, J. (2007) Interactional order in talk in two languages: organisational explanation. In Talk in Two Languages, 116-150.

Auer, P. (1988) A conversation analytic approach to code-switching and transfer. In M. Heller (ed.), Codeswitching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 187-214 (reprint in Li Wei (ed.) (2000), The Bilingualism Reader. London: Routledge, 166-187).

Gafaranga, J. (2009) The conversation analytic model of code-switching. In B. E. Bullock and A. Jacqueline Toribio (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp114-127.

Gafaranga, J. (2007), Grammatical order in talk in two languages. Talk in Two Languages, Palgrave, 34-61.

Also see chapters 9, 10, and 11 in Li Wei (ed.) (2000).

Gibson, F. (2003). Classroom code-switching in postcolonial contexts: Functions, attitudes and policies. In S. Makoni and U. Meinhof (eds.) Africa and Applied Linguistics. (AILA Review, vol. 16), 38-51.

Conflicts and tensions in classroom code-switching. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, vol 12, issue 2.

Bonacina, F and Gafaranga, J. (2011). 'Medium of instruction' versus 'medium of classroom interaction': Evidence from a complementary school in Scotland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 319-334
Willans, F. (2010). Classroom code-switching in a Vanuatu secondary school: Conflict between policy and practice. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14, 23-38.

Week 9:
Lanza, E. (2007). Multilingualism in the family. In P. Auer and Li Wei, 45-67.

Also see Garrett, P. B. (2007) Language socialization and the (re)production of bilingual subjectivities. In M. Heller (ed.) Bilingualism: A Social Approach. New York: Palgrave, 233-256.

Gafaranga, J. (2010). Medium request: Talking language shift into being. Language in Society, 39(2), 241-270.

Also see Rindstedt, C. and Aronsson, K. (2002) Growing up monolingual in a bilingual community. The Quecha revitalization paradox. Language in Society, 31, 721-742.

Gafaranga, J. (2011). Transition space medium repair: Language shift talked into being. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(1), 118-135.

Week 10:
Ricento (2000) Historical and theoretical perspectives in language policy and planning. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(2), 196-213.

Angouri, J. (2013). The multilingual reality of the multilingual workplace: Language policy and use. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 34(6), 514-581 (e-journal).

Raymond, C. W. (2014). Negotiating entitlement to language: Calling 911 without English. Language in Society 43, 33-59.

Week 11:
Rubio-Marin, R. (2003) Language rights: Exploring the competing rationales. In W. Kymlicka and A. Patten (eds.), Language Rights and Political Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 52-79.

Paz, M. (2013). The failed promise of language rights: A critique of the international language rights regime. Harvard International Law Journal, 54(1), 157-218 (e-journal).

Some Books:
Amastae, J. and L. Elias-Olivares (eds.) (1982). Spanish in the United States: Sociolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arnberg, L. (1987) Raising children bilingually: The pre-school years. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Auer, P. (1984) Bilingual conversation. Amsterham: Benjamins.
Auer, P. (ed.). Code-switching in conversation. London: Routledge.
Baker, P. (ed.) (1995). From contact to creole and beyond. London: University of Westminster Press.
Baker, C. (1995) Foundations of bilingual Education and bilingualism. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C. and Jones, S. P. (1998). Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Coulmas, F. (ed.) (1997). The handbook of sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Eckert, P. (1980) Diglossia: Separate and unequal. Linguistics, 18: 1053-64.
Fasold, R. (1984). The sociolinguistics of society. Oxford: Blackwell
Fishman, J. (1972). The sociology of language. Rowley: Newbury House Publishers.
Fishman, J. (1978). Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton.
Fishman, J. (1991) Reversing language shift. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Gal, S. (1979). Language shift: Social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Austria. New York: Academic Press.
Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heller, M. (ed.) (1998). Code-switching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives. Berlin: Mouton
Heller, M. (ed.) (2007) Bilingualism: A social approach. New York: Palgrave.
Jacobson, R. (ed.) (2001) Codeswitching worldwide II. Berlin: Mouton.
Kontra, M.; Phillipson, R.; Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and varady, T. (eds.) Language: A right and a resource. Budapest: Central European Press.
Milroy, L. and Muysken, P. (1995) One speaker, two languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1993a). Social motivations for codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon
Myers-Scotton, C. (1993b) Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon
Rubagumya, C. (ed.) (1994). Teaching and researching language in African classrooms. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Saunders, G. (1988) Bilingual children from birth to teens. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Sebba, M. (1997) Contact languages: Pidgins and creoles. London: Longman.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1981) Bilingualism or not: The education of minorities. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Skutnab-Kangas, T. and Phillipson, R. (1995). Linguistic Human rights: Overcoming linguistic discrimination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Spolsky, B. (2004.) Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Matters.
Tollefson, R. (1987) Planning language, planning inequality: Language policy in the community. London: Longman.
Wei, Li (1994) Three generations, two languages, one family. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Wei, Li and Moyer, G. M. (2008) Research methods in bilingualism and multilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. The Hague: Mouton.

Some Journals:
Brain and Language
International Journal of Bilingualism
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
Journal of Multilingual of Multicultural development
Journal of Sociolinguistics
Language in Society
Language Problems and Planning
Southwest Journal of Linguistics: Studies in Diglossia
Estudios de Sociolingüística
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Critical reading and thinking, clarity of expression, evidence-based argumentation, academic report writing
Additional Class Delivery Information Attend all lectures as scheduled
Keywordsbi/multilingualism,diglossia,code-switching,language policy,language shift/maintenance
Course organiserDr Joseph Gafaranga
Tel: (0131 6)50 3496
Course secretaryMiss Toni Noble
Tel: (0131 6)51 3188
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