Postgraduate Course: Displacement and Development (ODL) (AFRI11007)
|School||School of Social and Political Science
||College||College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences
|Credit level (Normal year taken)||SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate)
|Course type||Online Distance Learning
||Availability||Available to all students
|Summary||This course examines some of the key debates that displacement raises for students, researchers, and practitioners of development: How should the international community respond to refugee crises? What determines whether transnational diasporas are peace-makers or peace-breakers? Are distinctions between migrants due to poverty, those fleeing conflict, or those escaping natural disasters helpful or hurtful? Do labels like 'migrant', 'refugee','IDP', and 'asylum seekers' facilitate humanitarian protection or political containment? These questions examine the contentious relationship between approaches and 'solutions' to forced displacement and development, critically analysing and assessing both solutions and development for whom, where, and with what (un)intended consequences?
This course provides students with the necessary tools to frame their own nuanced, analytical answers to such questions. By examining key debates in forced migration studies, students learn to evaluate the dynamics of acute displacement as well as the policy responses that have helped shape the politics of 'migration management' in the greater context of international development. These skills and knowledge are imperative to a holistic understanding of international development and engagement with the discipline as theory, practice, and policy.
These aims are pursued by dividing the course into three mutually reinforcing components. The first part provides an introduction to the basic concepts of the study of migration (categorisations of forcibly displaced people; the international legal framework and pertinent institutions; and the drivers of forced migration). The second part focuses on experiences of displacement (life in camps; journeys to countries of asylum; and protracted displacement situations). The third and final part examines durable solutions for refugees and their agency in these processes.
Forced displacement has recently come to the forefront of popular debate in the guise of Europe's Refugee Crisis, enshrouded in anti-immigrant rhetoric concerning the spread of terrorism and insecurity. The study of forced migration, relatedly, has become vogue. This course aims to debunk the myths associated with these developments. It does so through a rigorous examination of displacement in context as the prolonged and prevailing reality of 1 in 113 people across the world (UNHCR, 2016); and as a complex humanitarian crisis inextricable from approaches to and policies of international development.
The course introduces students to the key theories and concepts needed to understand debates concerning current and continuing developments in displacement and development, and the contentious relationship between these topical disciplines. Students are challenged to engage critically with these academic and popular debates, using the tools and skills gained throughout the course to posit their own analyses and assessments in a rigorous and analytical manner.
The course emphasizes the critical analysis of the nexus between displacement and development, examining approaches to basic concepts, refugee livelihoods, and durable solutions for refugees. In this vein, it is divided into three parts, each corresponding to these inter-related themes. The first part provides an introduction to the basic concepts of the study of migration (categorisations of forcibly displaced people; the international legal framework and pertinent institutions; and the drivers of forced migration). The second part focuses on experiences of displacement (life in camps; journeys to countries of asylum; and protracted displacement situations). The third and final part examines durable solutions for refugees and their agency in these processes.
The ultimate objective of this course is to provide students with the necessary tools, skills, and knowledge to engage in a critical and informed manner with contemporary debates and developments concerning displacement and development as responsible citizens, researchers, activists, practitioners, and policy-makers.
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
||Other requirements|| None
Information for Visiting Students
|High Demand Course?
Course Delivery Information
|Academic year 2022/23, Available to all students (SV1)
|Course Start Date
|Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info)
Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4,
Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours
|Assessment (Further Info)
|Additional Information (Assessment)
||Components of Assessment:
Students will be assessed on three formal assignments, two of which are part of a formative assessment and feedback process, and the third which is summative:
(i) Participation in online discussion forums (10%); students will be marked according to (1) the frequency and consistency of their contributions as well as ; (2) the quality of their contributions (engagement with and reference to relevant readings, concepts, and theories; justified use of case studies and / or examples; critical assessment and analysis of key debates); and (3) commitment to fostering the on-line discussion community. Students are expected to demonstrate growth and improvement in the quality of their contributions throughout the course. Consideration will be given to students' diverse communication and learning styles, language skills, and mitigating circumstances as communicated to lecturers (competing professional responsibilities or unforeseen complications, for example).
(ii) Portfolio selection of at least two of the five online activities from the course and the essay plan (20%). If more than one activity is submitted, the final mark will be the average of the different activities. These activities are designed to help students develop their ideas; engage with and critically analyse key literatures and debates; and formulate and structure persuasive arguments grounded in theoretical and / or empirical evidence. Students will receive feedback on these assignments prior to the summative, final assignment to foster and augment their research, writing, and presentation skills.
(iii) A 3,000-word final essay (70%) based on the plan and feedback discussed above (ii). Due to temporal constraints, the course is incapable of covering all actors and sectors of international development. Thus, the final, summative evaluation is the student's own analysis of one particular actor and sector not covered explicitly in the course and its approach to international development. Students will be strongly encouraged to consider their topic / sector well in advance of writing their essay plans, so that they may integrate that focus into their online activities (for example, the info-graphic, mind-map, case study, etc.)
|No Exam Information
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
- Demonstrate a critical understanding of the key categorisation(s) and types of (forced) migrations, and their implication for humanitarian assistance to and durable solutions for refugees.
- Apply the analytical toolbox gained in the course (knowledge, skills, and understanding) to academic and day-to-day engagement with research and news about forced migration. Be able to de-construct (forced) migrations myths.
- Critically analyse, synthesize, and evaluate research and contemporary debates about the solutions for (forced) displacement crises.
- Be able to communicate your analysis of (forced) migration issues to a lay and academic audience.
- Be able to initiate autonomous research about displacement and refugee situations and issues that are not covered in the course (demonstrate some acquaintance with the main sources of information and research methodologies).
Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press is the main reference for the course. Paperback and online editions are available.
There are some other texts that we will refer to throughout the course, or which offer an accessible introduction to the main themes:
Betts, A. 2009. Forced Migration and Global Politics, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford
Gibney, M. 2004. The Ethics and Politics of Asylum: Liberal Democracy and the Response to Refugees, Cambridge University Press
Goodwin-Gill, G. and McAdam, J. 2007. The Refugee in International Law, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press
Harrell-Bond, B.E., 1986. Imposing aid: emergency assistance to refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Loescher, G., Betts, A. and Milner. J. 2012. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR): the politics and practice of refugee protection into the 21st century. Routledge (2nd edition).
Long, K., The Point of No Return: Refugees, Rights and Repatriation, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Nyers, P. 2013. Rethinking Refugees: Beyond State of Emergency. London: Routledge.
Price, M. 2009. Rethinking Asylum: History, Purpose, Limits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Zolberg, A., Suhrke, A and Aguayo, S. 1989. Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World. Oxford University Press: New York.
Indicative readings, week by week
Arendt, H. 1958. The Origins of Totalitarianism, Harvest: New York (second edition). Chapter 9: The Decline of the Nation-State and the End of the Rights of Man.
Elie, J. Histories of Refugee and Forced Migration in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. OUP: Oxford.
Long, K. 2013. ¿When refugees stopped being migrants: Movement, labour and humanitarian protection¿, Migration Studies. 1: 4-26.
Betts, A., 2010. The refugee regime complex. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 29 (1), pp.12-37.
Cohen, R., 2004. The guiding principles on internal displacement: An innovation in international standard setting. Global Governance, 10(4), pp.459-480.
Goodwin-Gill, G. and McAdam, J. 2007. The Refugee in International Law, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press ¿ especially introduction, p.1-14
Chapters 25-27 (25 Lischer, S. Conflict and Crisis-induced Displacemennt ; 26 McDowell, C. Development-induced Displacement ; 27 Zetter R. and Morissey J. The environement-mobility nexus) in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Mberu, B.U., 2016. African Migration and Population Distribution: Recent Trends, Methodological Challenges and Policy Issues. in International Handbook of Migration and Population Distribution (pp. 245-267). Springer Netherlands.
20. Anderson, B. Trafficking and Smuggling in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Anderson, Bridget. 'Where¿s the Harm in That? Immigration Enforcement, Trafficking, and the Protection of Migrants¿ Rights'. American Behavioral Scientist 56.9 (2012): 1241-1257.
Van Hear, Nicholas. 2004 ¿I Went as Far as My Money Would Take Me': Conflict, Forced Migration and Class. Centre on Migration, Policy & Society.
Black, Richard. 'Putting refugees in camps'. Forced Migration Review 2 (1998): 4-7.
Bakewell, O. Encampment and Self-settlement in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Landau L. Urban Refugees and IDPS. In Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Milner, J. Protracted Refugee Situations in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Crisp, Jeff. 'No solutions in sight: the problem of protracted refugee situations in Africa'. 2005. Displacement Risks in Africa 17.
Loescher, G et al. 2007. 'Protracted refugee situations and the regional dynamics of peacebuilding: Opinion'. Conflict, Security & Development. 7.3: 491-501.
Van Selm, J. Resettlement. in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Saunders, N., 2014. Paradigm shift or business as usual? An historical reappraisal of the 'shift¿ to securitisation of refugee protection. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 33(3), pp.69-92.
Jones, W. and Teytelboym, A., 2016. Choices, preferences and priorities in a matching system for refugees. Forced Migration Review, (51), p.80.
Hovil, L. Local Integration. in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Crisp, J. 2004 The local integration and local settlement of refugees: a conceptual and historical analysis. UNHCR, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit.
Fielden, A. 2008. Local integration: an under-reported solution to protracted refugee situations. UNHCR, Policy Development and Evaluation Service, 2008.
Bradley, M. 2008. 'Back to basics: The conditions of just refugee returns'.Journal of Refugee Studies. 21.3: 285-304.
Hammond, L. 'Voluntary' Repatriation and Reintegration. in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Long, K. 2013. The Point of No Return: Refugees, Rights and Repatriation, Oxford: Oxford University Press (focus on chapters 5 and 7)
Bakewell, O. 2008. 'Keeping Them in Their Place: The ambivalent relationship between development and migration in Africa', Third World Quarterly 29(7): 1341-58
Long, Katy. Rethinking Durable Solutions in Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E., Loescher, G., Long, K., & Sigona, N. (Eds.). 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. Oxford: OUP.
Adepoju, A., Boulton, A. and Levin, M. 2010. 'Promoting Integration Through Mobility: Free Movement Under Ecowas'. Refugee Survey Quarterly. 29.3: 120-144.
|Graduate Attributes and Skills
||1. Synthesising and analysing theoretical and empirical material from various sources.
2. Critically assessing conclusions and claims by rigorously examining the evidence and assumptions on which they are based.
3. Formulating convincing and grounded arguments, verbally and in writing.
4. Exercising informed independent thought and critical judgment.
|Course organiser||Dr Thabani Mutambasere
|Course secretary||Ms Maria Brichs
Tel: (0131 6)51 3205