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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Social and Political Science : African Studies

Postgraduate Course: Pursuing Justice after Violence (PGSP11605)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Social and Political Science CollegeCollege of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummarySince the 1990s, transitional justice has become a central element in efforts to come to terms with a violent past in a number of countries. Especially in sub-Saharan Africa there have been experiments with a variety of different transitional justice mechanisms including truth commissions, international criminal tribunals and localized institutions supposedly more in tune with African culture and values. This course examines the whole range of transitional justice mechanisms from a social-scientific perspective, exploring crucial issues such as their actual functioning and local legitimacy.

The course addresses the key debates that have shaped the field of transitional justice. For a long time the field has been defined by the truth versus justice debate, whether truth commissions or criminal trials are the best means to realize closure and reconciliation, and the peace versus justice debate, whether criminal trial jeopardize the fragile peace and negotiations during a transition period. Recently, these discussions have been partly eclipsed by efforts to localize transitional justice, creating institutions more in tune with local values and culture.
Course description Outline Content:

How should we deal with the abuses and atrocities of past regimes? Should we seek to hold people to account or forgive in the name of reconciliation? What is the relationship between truth and justice? In the last thirty years a specific set of institutions have become associated with what has become known as 'transitional justice', with truth and reconciliation commissions and criminal tribunals at the fore. This lecture presents an overview over the history of transitional justice and the problem of effecting a new beginning eschewing violence.

Two important debates have been shaping the field. The truth versus justice debate, whether truth commissions or criminal trials are the best means to realize closure and reconciliation, and the peace versus justice debate, whether criminal trial jeopardize the fragile peace and negotiations during a transition period.

Truth commissions have been established to serve as alternative, quasi-juridical alternatives to amnesty for perpetrators of crimes, on the one hand, and criminal trials, on the other hand. The have the task to establish accountability and national reconciliation by producing an authoritative historical record of crimes and human rights violations. This week examines the model and its dissemination, the ideas that have been driving the set-up, mandate and work of transitional justice institutions in general.

Since the late twentieth century there has a been a growing sense that some crimes are so heinous that the international community has a responsibility to prosecute those responsible no matter where the crimes took place. This lecture examines the various international criminal tribunals and their efforts to hold perpetrators of mass atrocity accountable. It will focus on the debate about the suitability of international criminal in the context of international criminal justice and the interplay between the tribunals' internal dynamics and international politics.

International criminal justice is often seen as aloof and far removed from local concerns and concepts of justice. In response, there have been calls to strengthen African community-based institutions to deal with the perpetrators of violence. But are these neo-traditional and localized forms of transitional justice really better suited to deal with human rights violations and war crimes? Are they really manifestations of African justice or rather inventions of well-meaning Western NGOs? These and other general questions surrounding attempts to localize transitional justice will be addressed in this week's lecture.

Weeks 6-10. CASE STUDIES
In weeks 6 to 10 we will discuss a number of case studies including experiences in Latin America, the former Yugoslavia and different parts of Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia and Uganda.

Student Learning Experience:

This course has three aims: (1) to provide students with a critical understanding of key theoretical, conceptual and policy debates related to transitional justice, (2) to examine how these debates shape developmental and humanitarian interventions, and (3) to discuss the actual functioning of these institutions in their socio-cultural and political context. The course adopts an inter-disciplinary perspective drawing on legal studies, political science, social and cultural anthropology. Teaching will make use of case studies of transitional justice in Latin America, former Yugoslavia, South Africa, West Africa and Central Africa.
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements None
Information for Visiting Students
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Academic year 2023/24, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  16
Course Start Semester 2
Timetable Timetable
Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 200 ( Lecture Hours 10, Seminar/Tutorial Hours 10, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 4, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 176 )
Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 0 %, Coursework 100 %, Practical Exam 0 %
Additional Information (Assessment) 20% of the course grade will be awarded for a 1,000-word short essay (blog entry of policy brief) to be submitted electronically.«br /»
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80% for a 3,000-word long essay on a topic related to the course theme, to be submitted electronically.
Feedback You will receive summative feedback for both assignments on critical and conceptual analysis, strength and cohesion of argument, use of sources and evidence, structure and organisation, breadth and relevance of reading, clarity of expression, presentation and referencing.

After submitting the short assignment you can submit a self-assessment with action points that you can discuss in light of the summative assessment. In general, the aim of the assessment is to allow you to develop your own ideas and topics, demonstrate your ability to analyse relevant issues and draw on and synthesise relevant evidence. The ability to present your ideas and analysis in a clear and concise manner is crucial in this regard.

The summative assessment of the short assignment also has a formative function as you will receive feedback for the short assessment before submitting the long academic essay thus enabling you to draw on lessons learnt from the feedback of the short assignment.

For the long academic essay the course convenor will provide a number of essay questions.

Formative assessment: You are encouraged to discuss your plans for the short and the long assignment with the course convenor.
No Exam Information
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the principal theories and debates in the field of transitional justice.
  2. Apply the knowledge about academic and policy debates in the field of transitional justice in the critical analysis of specific transitional justice mechanisms.
  3. Communicate the critical analysis to academic and non-academic audiences.
Reading List
Key Readings:

Allen, Tim. 2006. Trial Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Lord's Resistance Army. London: Zed Books.

Anders, Gerhard and Olaf Zenker, eds. 2014. Transition and Justice: Negotiating the Terms of New Beginnings. Special Issue Development and Change 45(3).

Arthur, Paige. 2009. "How 'Transitions' Reshaped Human Rights: A Conceptual History of Transitional Justice", Human Rights Quarterly 31(2): 321-367.

Bell, Christine. 2009. "Transitional Justice, Interdisciplinarity and the State of the 'Field' or 'Non- Field'", International Journal of Transitional Justice 3(1): 5-27.

Buckely-Zistel, Susanne. 2006. "Remembering to Forget: Chosen Amnesia as a Strategy for Local Coexistence in Post-genocide Rwanda", Africa 76(2): 131-150.

Branch, Adam. 2011. Displacing Human Rights: War and Intervention in Northern Uganda. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clark, Phil. 2010. The Gacaca Courts, Post-Genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clarke, Kamari Maxine. 2009. Fictions of Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Challenge of Legal Pluralism in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hagan, John, Ron Levi, Gabrielle Ferrales. 2006. "Swaying the Hand of Justice: The Internal and External Dynamics of Regime Change at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", Law and Social Inquiry 31: 585- 616.

Oomen, Barbara. 2006. "Donor-driven Justice and its Discontents: The Case of Rwanda", Development and Change 365: 887-910.

Payne, Leigh A. 2008. Unsettling Accounts: Neither Truth nor Reconciliation in Confessions of State Violence. Durham: Duke University Press.

Pillay, Suren, Chandra Lekha Sriram, eds. 2009. Peace versus Justice? The Dilemma of Transitional Justice in Africa. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, Javier Mariezcurrena, eds. 2006. Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shaw, Rosalind, Lars Waldorf, Pierre Hazan, eds. 2010. Localizing Transitional Justice: Interventions and Priorities After Mass Violence. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Teitel, Ruti. 2000. Transitional Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, Richard. 2001. The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, Richard A. 2005. "Judging History: The Historical Record of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", Human Rights Quarterly 27(3): 908-942.
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Not entered
KeywordsNot entered
Course organiserDr Gerhard Anders
Tel: (0131 6)51 3178
Course secretaryMr Adam Petras
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