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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Engineering : Civil

Undergraduate Course: Water and Wastewater Systems 4 (CIVE10008)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Engineering CollegeCollege of Science and Engineering
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 10 (Year 4 Undergraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits10 ECTS Credits5
SummaryThe topics of water quality and water & wastewater systems are continued from the 3rd year course Water Resources. Specific reference will be made to water and wastewater treatment options.
Course description Lectures: Titles & Contents

Water Treatment Section

1 Filtration (Lecture 1)
Historical Background; Slow Sand Filtration (elements of a slow sand filter; mechanisms in a slow sand filter; algal actions; summary of slow sand filtration); Rapid Sand Filtration (elements of a rapid sand filter; sand bed; underdrain system); Introduction to Wetland Systems.

2 Hydraulics of Filtration (Lecture 2)
Normal Operation; Backwash Hydraulics.

3 Disinfection and Fluoridation (Lecture 3)
Destroying Pathogens in Water Requirements of a Disinfectant; Methods of Disinfection (heat treatment; radiation treatment; chemical treatment); Chlorine as a Disinfectant (kinetics of chlorination; applications of chlorine; technology of chlorine addition; advantages and disadvantages of chlorine); Fluoridation; The Fluoridation Question.

4 Water Softening and Iron and Manganese Removal (Lecture 4)
Water Softening; Lime-Soda Softening; The Chemistry of Water Softening (bar graphs for water softening; lime softening; lime-soda softening; excess lime softening; excess lime-soda softening; lime recovery); Iron and Manganese Removal; Problems of Iron and Manganese; Basic Removal Processes (catalytic action; lime softening; ion exchange; sequestering).

5 Environmental Water Microbiology (Lectures 5 and 6)
Practical Statistics for Aquatic Microbiology (basic summary statistics; diversity index); Protozoa The Organisms (protozoa as part of the trophic structure; kingdom protista; biological effects of organic pollutants; sewage fungus; saprobic system); Eutrophication and Water Treatment; Protozoology of Treatment Processes (protozoa in water and wastewater treatment plants; protozoa as indicator micro-organisms on processes); Odour and Toxins of Natural Origin; Public Health Aspects (typical diseases related to waters; invertebrates found in main supplies; monitoring and prevention of waterborne diseases); Case Studies with a Particular Reference to Wetland Systems.

Wastewater Treatment Section

6 Case Study: Pond Systems for Roof Water Runoff (Lectures 7 and 8)
Sustainable Roof Runoff Drainage; Site Description; Dimensions of the Study Site; Hydrology, Water Quality and Ecological Analysis; Questionnaire Survey; Pond Structures: Biodiversity Enhancement Versus Space Restrictions; Water Quality; System Capacity; Economics; Risk of Flooding; Soil Structure and Properties; Biodiversity; Design Guidelines; Introduction to Further Related Case Studies.

7 Biological Filtration (Lectures 9 and 10)
The Trickling or Percolating Filter; Basic Ecology of Biological Filtration; Biological Filtration Process Variants (standard rate filters; high rate filters; alternating double filtration); Design of Biological Filters (pre-treatment; dosing equipment; filter beds; underdrainage; ventilation; humus tanks); Wetland Systems.

8 Rotating Biological Contactors (Lectures 11 and 12)
Principle of Operation; Loading Criteria; Principle Elements of an RBC (shafts; media; drive system; tankage; enclosure; settling tanks); Operational Problems; RBC Process Design; RBC Unit Sizing (design method; large unit; small scheme design); Unit Details.

9 The Activated Sludge Process - part 1 (Lecture 13)
Activated Sludge Process; Comparison of the Activated Sludge Process and Percolating Filters.

10 The Activated Sludge Process - part 2 (Lecture 14)
Conventional Activated Sludge (complete mix); Series or Plug Flow System; Tapered Aeration; Step Feed Activated Sludge; High Rate Activated Sludge Process; Extended Aeration; Contact Stabilisation; Oxidation Ditches; The Deep Shaft Process.

11 The Activated Sludge Process - part 3 (Lecture 15)
Diffused Air Aeration; Mechanical Aerators; Process Design (kinetics of biological growth; application of kinetics to treatment systems).

12 The Activated Sludge Process - part 4 (Lecture 16)
Design of Activated Sludge Systems; Loading Criteria; Selection of Reactor Type (reaction kinetics; oxygen transfer requirements; nature of the waste; local environment); Sludge Production; Oxygen Demand; Nutrient Requirements; Environmental Requirements; Solid Liquid Separation; Effluent Characteristics.

13 Sludge Treatment and Disposal (Lectures 17 and 18)
Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge; Characterisation of Wastewater Sludges; Volume of Sludge; Tests for Dewatering of Sludges (specific resistance to filtration; capillary suction time); Objectives and Methods in Sludge Treatment and Disposal; Treatment Processes (lagoons; aerobic digestion); Thickening and Dewatering of Sludge (chemical conditioning; air drying; gravity thickening; elutriation; filter pressing; vacuum filtration; centrifuge; partial disposal); Ultimate Disposal (land dumping; land treatment; sea dumping)

Tutorials: Titles & Contents

The problem sheets (discussed during tutorials) listed below relate directly to the lectures listed above. The corresponding exercises will not be assessed, and contain additional material for higher ability students.

Problem Sheet No. 1

Problem Sheet No. 2
Hydraulics of Filtration.

Problem Sheet No. 3
Disinfection and Fluoridation.

Problem Sheet No. 4
Water Softening and Iron and Manganese Removal.

Problem Sheet No. 5
Environmental Water Microbiology.

Problem Sheet No. 6
Biological Filtration; Rotating Biological Contactors.

Problem Sheet No. 7
Activated Sludge Process.

Problem Sheet No. 8
Sludge Treatment and Disposal.
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements None
Information for Visiting Students
Course Delivery Information
Not being delivered
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course, the student should be able to:
- be familiar with the current UK and international water quality controls and standards;
- understand water and wastewater systems with particular reference to urban water problems;
- understand the main processes involved in water treatment;
- understand the processes involved in wastewater treatment for small and large communities in developed and developing countries.
Reading List
Scholz, M. (2006). Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Not entered
KeywordsNot entered
Course organiserDr Martin Crapper
Tel: (0131 6)50 5727
Course secretaryMr Craig Hovell
Tel: (0131 6)51 7080
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