THE UNIVERSITY of EDINBURGH

DEGREE REGULATIONS & PROGRAMMES OF STUDY 2019/2020

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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Geosciences : Postgraduate Courses (School of GeoSciences)

Postgraduate Course: Marine Infrastructure and Environmental Change (PGGE11201)

Course Outline
SchoolSchool of Geosciences CollegeCollege of Science and Engineering
Credit level (Normal year taken)SCQF Level 11 (Postgraduate) AvailabilityAvailable to all students
SCQF Credits20 ECTS Credits10
SummaryMIEC builds on the Marine Systems and Policies (MSP) course taken in Term 1. MSP focused on marine ecosystems and the policies in place to conserve them, through the lens of the scientist and policy-maker across different marine biomes, policy scales and societal perspectives. In Term 2, MIEC examines the sustainability of ocean exploitation through the lens of the practitioner: students will explore different marine planning processes from around the world. Lecture-based learning based on five ┐Blue Growth┐ sectors will take place. These are industries with high potential for socioeconomic growth in the future: aquaculture, renewable energy, seabed mining, maritime and coastal tourism, and blue biotechnology. Each Blue Growth lecture will follow with an expert-in practice lecture on real-world case studies of how a consenting and planning process was implemented that considered these Blue Growth sectors. Expert lectures will cover marine spatial planning, strategic environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment, marine wildlife codes of conduct, and access and benefit sharing of marine genetic resources. The goals are that by the end of MIEC, students will have the skills and breadth of knowledge needed to enter into a spectrum of practitioner roles, and to critically evaluate the robustness of marine planning processes being used worldwide in support of sustainable ocean development.

Marine biodiversity, animal behaviour, habitat condition, and ecosystem connectivity have been significantly altered by ocean exploitation and development. Although the ┐Blue Economy┐ of securing wealth from the oceans is luring, with 5 key marine ┐Blue Growth┐ sectors having great potential for socioeconomic growth, we know that fisheries have radically transformed marine food webs and habitats worldwide, while touristic shorelines, wildlife watching, and aquaculture development illustrate a historic creep or ┐ocean sprawl┐ in our coastal zones. Advances in technology enable humankind to explore the ocean at unprecedented scales including discovery of molecular genetic resources, but technology enables exploitation of marine resources such as oil and gas resources and offshore wind in deeper more remote waters, with mining of deep-sea mineral resources on the world┐s horizon. The Blue Economy may also present new opportunities for marine conservation e.g., ecotourism and citizen science opportunities, benefits from drug discovery, or by the introduction of new habitats that help connect or sustain sharks, seabirds and marine mammals.

The planning processes by which marine sectors are allowed to proceed is often isolated in space and time, unable to capture the incremental and cumulative picture of impacts, lacking in public participation, and not adaptive for climate change. MIEC students will learn about and critique various processes that take place nationally and internationally that strive for sustainable development of the ocean, including: Marine Spatial Planning, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Wildlife Codes of Conduct, and Access and Benefit Sharing of Marine Genetic Resources. Delivered this way, MIEC integrates marine ecology, conservation, regulation and ocean governance against the backdrop of the Blue Economy.


Course description i. A weekly Blue Growth theme and expert lecture on a marine planning process: weekly lecture on a Blue Growth sector, connecting to a guest expert lecture on the planning process for a real-world case study. Guest experts will deliver novel perspectives on a variety of projects, giving students a broader context and understanding of the opportunities and challenges in practice associated with different marine sectors. MIEC experts in-practice generally span academia, industry, non-governmental organisations and government;

ii. Group presentations: presentations of marine planning in practice. Each group will present a case study of a Blue Growth sector and the marine planning process it went through, then look to the class for their feedback on any gaps or issues;

iii. Blue Papers: over the course of MIEC, students will write an essay-style paper that explores and critiques a real-world case study of a Blue Economy sector of his or her choosing that underwent marine planning;

iv. Quantum Geographical Information System training session: a unique expert-led session that introduces the use of open-source QGIS to create maps for use in marine planning, including choosing and manipulating a base layer, adding points and polygons. QGIS can be freely downloaded, please bring your own laptop or you can work with others for this session.

v. Blue Paper Abstract Symposium: on the last day of class, each student will present a 5 minute ┐speed talk┐ on their individual Blue Papers. The blue paper will be developed as part of the coursework and based on the student┐s own choice of case study on a real-world Blue Economy development and the marine planning process it underwent.
Entry Requirements (not applicable to Visiting Students)
Pre-requisites It is RECOMMENDED that students have passed Marine Systems and Policies (PGGE11186) OR Marine Systems and Policies (UG) (EASC10083)
Co-requisites
Prohibited Combinations Other requirements If students have not passed the recommended courses they should seek permission from the course organiser for entry to the course on a case by case basis.
Additional Costs None
Information for Visiting Students
Pre-requisitesNone
High Demand Course? Yes
Course Delivery Information
Not being delivered
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  1. Apply critical thinking and analytical understanding of diverse drivers and impacts around marine environmental assessments and project management.
  2. Apply this critical thinking to real-world scenarios following exposure to different NGO, industry and government perspectives on marine infrastructure projects and projections.
  3. Apply stronger organisation skills to plan, execute and report on scientific investigation and management evaluations.
  4. Participate in individual and team activities toward the completion of assignments and goals.
  5. Develop critical thinking with regard to the evaluation of sources of information, the feasibility of management options and interpretation of outcomes.
Reading List
WEEK 1
Introduction to the course and overview
Essential
- Bulleri and Chapman (2010) The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 26-35
- Read Europe's Blue Growth Strategy and communication documents
https://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/blue_growth_en
https://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/sites/maritimeaffairs/files/docs/body/com_2012_494_en.pdf

WEEK 2
Aquaculture & Marine Spatial Planning (MSP)
Essential
- Read and Fernandes (2003) Management of environmental impacts of marine aquaculture in Europe. Aquaculture 226: 139-163
- Review the European Union's MSP Directive
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/maritime_spatial_planning/index_en.htm

WEEK 3
Ocean Energy & Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
Essential
- Boehlert and Gill (2010) Environmental and ecological effects of ocean renewable energy development: a current synthesis. Oceanography 23: 68-81
- Willsteed et al. (2017) Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground. Science of the Total Environment 577: 19-32.
- Review the EU website on SEA Directive
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/sea-legalcontext.htm

WEEK 4
Deep Seabed Mining & Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Essential
- Durden et al. (2018) Environmental Impact Assessment process for deep-sea mining in 'the Area'. Marine Policy 87: 194-202
- Jaeckel et al. (2016) Sharing benefits of the common heritage of mankind - Is the deep seabed mining regime ready? Marine Policy 70: 198-204
- Read the EU website on the EIA Directive
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/review.htm
- Read UK Government, Marine Licensing - Impact Assessments
https://www.gov.uk/guidance/marine-licensing-impact-assessments

WEEK 5
Marine and Coastal Tourism & Marine Wildlife Codes of Conduct
Essential
- Gossling et al. (2018) Coastal and Ocean Tourism. In: Salomon M., Markus T. (eds) Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Springer, Cham
- Trave et al. (2017) Are we killing them with kindness? Evaluation of sustainable marine wildlife tourism. Biological Conservation 209: 211-222


WEEK 6
Blue Biotechnology & Expert Access & Benefit Sharing of Marine Genetic Resources
Essential Reading
- Blasiak et al. (2018) Corporate control and global governance of marine genetic resources. Science Advances 4: eaar5237.
- Day et al. (2016), Blue Biotechnology. Commonwealth Blue Economy Report Series, No. 5. Commonwealth Secretariat: London
- Lallier et al. (2014) Access to and use of marine genetic resources: understanding the legal framework. Natural Product Reports 31: 612-616





Additional Information
Graduate Attributes and Skills Students will acquire and develop the following transferable skills:
1. General critical thinking and analytical understanding of diverse drivers and impacts around coastal marine environmental assessments and project management.
2. Exposure to different NGO, industry and government perspectives on marine infrastructure projects and projections.
3. Organisation skills to plan, execute and report on scientific investigation and management evaluations.
4. To participate in individual and team activities toward the completion of assignments and goals.
5. Critical thinking with regard to the evaluation of sources of information, the feasibility of management options and interpretation of outcomes.
Keywordsmarine infrastructure,built environments,project development,mitigation,environmental change
Contacts
Course organiserDr Lea-Anne Henry
Tel: (0131 6)50 5425
Email: L.Henry@ed.ac.uk
Course secretaryMs Kathryn Will
Tel: (0131 6)50 2624
Email: Kath.Will@ed.ac.uk
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