# DEGREE REGULATIONS & PROGRAMMES OF STUDY 2024/2025

### Timetable information in the Course Catalogue may be subject to change.

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DRPS : Course Catalogue : School of Physics and Astronomy : Undergraduate (School of Physics and Astronomy)

# Undergraduate Course: Lagrangian Dynamics (PHYS10015)

 School School of Physics and Astronomy College College of Science and Engineering Credit level (Normal year taken) SCQF Level 10 (Year 3 Undergraduate) Availability Available to all students SCQF Credits 10 ECTS Credits 5 Summary The principles of classical dynamics, in the Newtonian formulation, are expressed in terms of (vectorial) equations of motion. These principles are recapitulated and extended to cover systems of many particles. The laws of dynamics are then reformulated in the Lagrangian framework, in which a scalar quantity (the Lagrangian) takes centre stage. The equations of motion then follow by differentiation, and can be obtained directly in terms of whatever generalised coordinates suit the problem at hand. These ideas are encapsulated in Hamilton's principle, a statement that the motion of any classical system is such as to extremise the value of a certain integral. The laws of mechanics are then obtained by a method known as the calculus of variations. As a problem-solving tool, the Lagrangian approach is especially useful in dealing with constrained systems, including (for example) rotating rigid bodies, and one aim of the course is to gain proficiency in such methods. At the same time, we examine the conceptual content of the theory, which reveals the deep connection between symmetries and conservation laws in physics. Hamilton's formulation of classical dynamics (Hamiltonian Dynamics) is introduced, and some of its consequences and applications are explored. Course description - Revision of Newtonian Mechanics: Newton's laws; Dynamics of a Particle; Conservation Laws - Dynamics of a system of particles; Momentum; Angular Momentum; Energy; Transformation Laws - Use of centre of momentum; Noninertial rotating frames; Summary of Newton's scheme - Constraints; Generalised coordinates and velocities - Generalised forces; Derivation of the Lagrange equation - Lagrangian; Examples - Using Lagrangian Method. Examples: Atwood's Monkey; particle and wedge; simple pendulum; spherical pendulum - Rotating frames; Calculus of Variations - Applications of Variational Calculus; Hamilton's Principle - Hamilton's Principle; Conservation Laws; Energy Function - Energy Function; Conservation Laws and Symmetry - Velocity-dependent Forces; - Hamiltonian Dynamics; relationship to Quantum Mechanics - Rigid Body Motion; Introduction; Euler's Equations - The Symmetric Top - Precession; the Tennis Racquet Theorem - Lagrangian for a Top; Equations of motion; Conservation Laws - Symmetric Tops: Zones; Steady Precession; Nutation; Gyroscopes - Small Oscillation Theory
 Pre-requisites Students MUST have passed: ( Linear Algebra and Several Variable Calculus (PHYS08042) OR Several Variable Calculus and Differential Equations (MATH08063)) AND Dynamics and Vector Calculus (PHYS08043) OR ( Introductory Dynamics (PHYS08052) AND Several Variable Calculus and Differential Equations (MATH08063) OR Accelerated Algebra and Calculus for Direct Entry (MATH08062)) Co-requisites Prohibited Combinations Other requirements Students should have achieved the learning outcomes of Introductory Dynamics (PHYS08052) or Dynamics and Vector Calculus (PHYS08043), together with knowledge of basic algebra and calculus corresponding to material in Mathematics for Physics 1 (PHYS08035), linear algebra and multivariate calculus corresponding to the material in Linear Algebra and Several Variable Calculus (PHYS08042) or Algebra and Calculus (PHYS08041), or their equivalents.
 Pre-requisites None High Demand Course? Yes
 Academic year 2024/25, Available to all students (SV1) Quota:  0 Course Start Semester 1 Timetable Timetable Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 100 ( Lecture Hours 22, Seminar/Tutorial Hours 20, Summative Assessment Hours 2, Revision Session Hours 2, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 2, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 52 ) Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 100 %, Coursework 0 %, Practical Exam 0 % Additional Information (Assessment) Degree Examination, 100% Feedback Optional hand-ins fortnightly Exam Information Exam Diet Paper Name Hours & Minutes Main Exam Diet S2 (April/May) Lagrangian Dynamics S2 Exam 2:00 Resit Exam Diet (August) Lagrangian Dynamics Resit Exam 2:00 Academic year 2024/25, Part-year visiting students only (VV1) Quota:  0 Course Start Semester 1 Timetable Timetable Learning and Teaching activities (Further Info) Total Hours: 100 ( Lecture Hours 22, Seminar/Tutorial Hours 20, Summative Assessment Hours 2, Revision Session Hours 2, Programme Level Learning and Teaching Hours 2, Directed Learning and Independent Learning Hours 52 ) Assessment (Further Info) Written Exam 100 %, Coursework 0 %, Practical Exam 0 % Additional Information (Assessment) Degree Examination, 100% Feedback Optional hand-ins fortnightly Exam Information Exam Diet Paper Name Hours & Minutes Main Exam Diet S1 (December) Semester 1 Visiting Students Only 2:00
 Consolidation of the learning outcomes in the Entry Requirements in the context of more challenging classical dynamics problems, together with at least two of the following: a. understanding of the Lagrangian formulation of classical dynamics and the ability to apply it to solve for the motion of point particles and simple bodies in terms of generalised coordinates; b. understanding of the relationship between symmetries and conservation laws, and knowledge of the Hamiltonian formulation of classical dynamics and Poisson brackets; c. ability to apply the calculus of variations to solve minimisation problems, and knowledge of the formulation of dynamics in terms of a variational principle; d. ability to apply Lagrangian methods to solve for the motion of rigid bodies; e. ability to solve for the small amplitude oscillations of coupled systems.
 None
 Graduate Attributes and Skills Not entered Additional Class Delivery Information Workshop/tutorial sessions, as arranged. Keywords LagD
 Course organiser Dr Jennifer Smillie Tel: (0131 6)50 5239 Email: J.M.Smillie@ed.ac.uk Course secretary Ms Alexis Heeren Tel: Email: Alexis.Heeren@ed.ac.uk
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